工业设计


Design and Environment
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原文:

DESIGN and ENVIRONMENT
Product design is the principal part and kernel of industrial design. Product design gives uses pleasure. A good design can bring hope and create new lifestyle to human. In spscificity,products are only outcomes of factory such as mechanical and electrical products,costume and so on.In generality,anything,whatever it is tangibile or intangible,that can be provided for a market,can be weighed with value by customers, and can satisfy a need or desire,can be entiled as products. Innovative design has come into human life. It makes product looking brand-new and brings new aesthetic feeling and attraction that are different from traditional products. Enterprose tend to renovate idea of product design because of change of consumer's lifestyle , emphasis on individuation and self-expression,market competition and requirement of individuation of product.

Product design includes factors of society ,economy, techology and leterae humaniores. Tasks of product design includes styling, color, face processing and selection of material and optimization of human-machine interface. Design is a kind of thinking of lifestyle.Product and design conception can guide human lifestyle . In reverse , lifestyle also manipulates orientation and development of product from thinking layer. With the development of science and technology ,more and more attention is paid to austerity of environmental promblems ,such as polluting of

atmosphere,destroy of forest, soilerosion,land desertification, water resource polluting, a great deal of species becaming extinct,exhansting of petroleum , natural gas and

coal and so on . A designer should have a strong consciousness of protecting environment and to make his\her design to be based on avoiding destroying environment and saving natural recourse. Nowadays ,greenhouse effects,destroyed ozone layers and acid rain are three global environmental questions. Greenhouse effect is phenomena of the atmosphere becoming warmer . The forming principle of greenhouse effect is that the Sun short wave radiation can penetrate into ground through atmosphere ,long wave radiation emitted from ground after ground is warmed ,is absorbed by carbon dioxide of atmosphere , and then atmosphere gets warmer.The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere changes the earth to a large greenhouse like a thick layer of glass . Methane ,ozone,chlorine,Fluorine, hydrocarbon and aqueous vapor also make some contribution to greenhouse effects. With rapid increase of population and rapid development of industry ,more and more carbon dioxide of atmosphere enters into atmosphere. Because forest is cun down in a large amount also ,carbon dioxide increases gradally ,and the greenhouse effects are strengthened constantly .The results of the greenhouse effects are very serious. The great changes will take place in the natural ecology ,such as desert expanding ,land corroding aggravating, forest retreating to the polarregion, calamity of drought and waterlog serious and rainfall increasing. The temperate zone will be wetter in water and will be droughtier in summer . Tropical zone will become wetter and subtropical zone will become more arid . All of these above will forces the existing irrigation works to be adjusted. Coastal regions will be threatened seriously .Because the temperature is rising , ice-cubes will be melted at the two poles so to the sea level will be rising and a lot of cities and ports will be submerged. The ozone layer destroyed shocked academia and the whole international aommunity .American scientists,Monila and Rowland , pointed out that it is human activities bring ozone hole of today . arch-criminal that we now well know is freon and Kazakhstan dragon. Acid rain has already become a kind of air pollution phenomenon in extensive range,crossing over national boundaries at present. Acid rain destroys soil, makes lake

acid and endangers growing of abimals and plants. It also stimulates people's skin, brings out the skin disease, causes lung hydronces, lung harden ,and corrodes the metal product,paint ,leather, fabrics and building with carbonate . In a word , the environment of human life has already worsened day by day. The reasons of the worsening mostly come from the human own bad life style, disrespecting the objective law, eager for quick success,use of the earth resource without scientific plan ,and lack of consciousness pratecting the environment in design . So they destroy home by themselves,which not only harm human on contemporary, but also seriously influence existence of descendants. The environmental question is caused by people's bad design and life style to a great extent , which puts forward a serious question for a designer that designers should undertake the historical important task of environment protection. Industry has brought the disaster to world while creates a large amount of wealth for mankind . Industry design has accelerated the consumpition of the resource and energy resource and has caused enormous destruction to the ecological balance of the earth while creating modern life style and living environment for mankind. So as industry designers, setting up environmental awareness incarnates their morals and social sense of responsibility. Designers must be responsible for their own designs, and must take human health and blessedness , and harmonically coexisting of nature with the human as the rules necessarily obeyed in their own design. Designers must also master the necessary knowledege in material, craft, chemical industry, manufacturing,ect.,in order to be possible for avoiding to danger to environment causing by his design. The concept of "Sustainable development design"has epoch-maling meanings of humanity and real development of the world .It reflects the designer's morals and responsibility , and has already become the trend of designing development in the 21st century .Hence ,mankind's development made of traditional industrial civilization was turned to one of the modern ecological civilization. It is the coordination of social progress,economic growth and environmental protestion. Sustainable development is a kind concept of brand-new ethics,morals and

values that people should follow. Its essence lies in fully utilizing the modern science and technongy ,exploiting green resources ,development constantly, impelling harmonious development between human and nature and pramoting inter-harmony of population ,resource and environment . Solving the problem of sustainable development is a change of technological innovation and behavior made. Sustainable development strategy is to solve the problem of meeting contemporary people's demands in maximum under the precondition of un-hurting several generations' demands of the future . It will realize the unity of the present interests and long-term interest and leave the development space for descendants. The question of the strategic consideration of sustainable development should include circulation, green energy and ecological efficiency. Green design comes from introspection on environmental and ecological disruption caused by design of modern technology and culture. Green design focuses on the balance relation of persons and natural ecology . Designers should consider the environmental benefits at every decision of the disign process, and try their best to reduce the destruction to environment. For industry design, the core of green design is "3R",namely Reduce,Recycle and Reuse.It is necessary not only to reduce consunption of substance and energy sources,and reduce letting of harmful substance,but also to classified reclaim, recycle and reuse products and parts conveniently.Green design is not only technical ,but also an innovative idea. It requires designer to give up some rat-fuck method excessively emphasizing at the style of products, and to focus on the real innovative. He or she would design the form of the products with more responsible method and make the products lengthen their wervice life as much as possible through succinct and permanent modeling. For materials,stock and regeneration of raw materials, consumption and pollution of environmental energy during obtaining materials,machining performance in follow-up manufacturing,low consumption and low pollution of energy ,and reclaimable during discarded should be considered.

Problems of manufacturing are that pollution should be reduced or died out during beginning of manufacturing. Consideration on packing, transporting , sale, ect. is meant the environmental performance of packaging, green packing ,good performance of

transportation ,decreasing self weight , reducing energy consumption , localized production and reducing consimption of work flow. Consideration on the use of product concerns with waste of energy and resources while produces are used , the modularization of environmental performance , recombined ability , and the mades of using product while products are renewed , as well as other factors. Easy disassembled feature , convenient decomposition and classification , reclaaimable and reusable features of materials, and recombined feature of parts or removes for other use should all be considered during the period while products are renewed , as well as other factors. Easy disassembled feature, convenient decomposition and classification , reclaimable and reusable features of materials, and recombined feature of parts or removed for other use should all be considered during the period while products are discarded . Clean energy souces should be Considered , such as solar ernergy , water, electricity and wind power .Clean materials concern with low pollution , innocuity, disaggregation and reclaimable . Clean manufacturing process is meant production with energy saving and environment protection while used, and reclaimable while discarded. Regeneration and reuse of parts are powerful measure of sustainable strategy. The fact has proved that through disassembly and analysis the proportion of reusable material would be higher after improving design and retread. For example , in a scrap car , metal meterial accounts for 80%.Among them , nonferrous metal accounts for 3%~4.7%. 45%of output of steel comes from scrap steeel in world and 25% output of steel comes from scrap steel in our country. Product Lifecycle Management is meant all life course of product from people's

demand for product to be washed out , including the main stages of demand analysis, praduct planning , conceptual design , produce design , digitized simulation, proceess preparation , process planning,production testing and quaality control , sell and distribution, use \maintaining and maintain, as well as scrap and reclaiming . Advanced management idea and first-class information technology are taken into industrial and commercial operation in modern enterprises , which makes enterprises be able to adjust management means and management ways effectively in digital economic era , inoder to exert enterprise's unprecedented competition advantage . Helping enterprise to carry on products innovation , to win the market , and to obtain additional profit would improve the value of the enterprise products.

译 文:

设计与环境
产品设计是工业设计的主体和核心。产品设计给用户带来享受,一个好的产 品设计给人带来希望并创造新的生活方式。 产品设计的主要任务是解决人与物之间的关系问题。以汽车设计为例:从工 业设计的角度考虑,要考虑汽车的安全性、舒适性及造型美等方面;从人机工程 的角度出发,设计使得汽车易于驾驶、操纵,乘坐空间与内部装饰宜人、座位舒 适、适合个人的审美时尚等问题。考虑汽车的主动安全性、被动安全性,体现以 人为本,保护驾驶员和乘客的安全。 创新的设计已经进入人类生活之中。它让产品焕然一新,带来与传统产品不 同的美感和吸引力。由于消费者的生活方式改变、强调个性化与自我表现、激烈 的市场竞争以及产品差别化的需要,企业更新产品的创新理念已经成为大势所 趋。 产品设计应该包含社会、经济、技术、人文等因素。 产品设计的任务包括:产品外观造型设计、色彩方案设计、表面处理工艺设 计、材质选择设计、优化人机界面设计。

设计是对生活方式的一种思考,产品及其设计观念,起着引导和提示生活的 作用,反过来生活方式也从思想观念的层面上左右着产品的定位和发展方向。 随着科技的发展,人们越来越认识到环境问题日益严重,大气污染、森林破 坏、水土流失、土地沙漠化、水资源污染、大量物种灭绝、石油、天然气、煤等 资源枯竭。作为工业设计师,应该有强烈的环境保护意识,使得自己的设计建立 在不破坏环境及节约自然资源的基础上。 其中,温室效应、臭氧层破坏和酸雨是当今全球性的三大环境问题。 温室效应就是大气变暖的效应其形成原因是太阳短波辐射可以透过大气射 入地面, 而地面增暖后放出的长波辐射却被大气中的二氧化碳就像一层厚厚的玻 璃,把地球变成了一个大暖房。甲烷、臭氧、氯、氟烃以及水汽等也对温室效应 有所贡献。随着人口的急剧增加和工业的迅速发展,越来越多的二氧化碳排入大 气中; 又由于森林被大量砍伐, 大气中原本应被森林吸收的二氧化碳没有被吸收, 致使二氧化碳逐渐增加,温室效应也不断增强。温室效应的后果十分严重,自然 生态将随之发生重大变化,荒漠将扩大,土地侵蚀加重,森林退向极地,旱涝灾 害严重,雨量增加;温带冬天更湿、夏天更旱;热带也将变得更湿,干热的亚热 带变得更干旱,迫使原有水利工程重新调整。沿海将受到严重威胁。由于气温升 高,两极冰块将融化,使海平面上升,将会淹没许多城市和港口。 臭氧层破坏现象引起科学界及整个国际社会的震动。美国的两位科学家 Monila 和 Rowland 指出,正是人为的活动造成了今天的臭氧洞。元凶就是现在 所熟知的氟利昂和哈龙。 酸雨目前已成为一种范围广泛、跨越国界的大气污染现象。酸雨破坏土壤, 使湖泊酸化,危害动植物生长;刺激人的皮肤,诱发皮肤病,引起肺水肿、肺硬 化;会腐蚀金属制品、油漆、皮革、纺织品和含碳酸盐的建筑。 总而言之,人类生活的环境已经日益恶化。而恶化的原因大部分属于人类本 身的不良生活方式和不尊重客观规律,急功近利,对于地球资源的使用没有科学 的计划性,而且在设计、制造产品以及日常生活中缺乏保护环境的意识,以至于 自毁家园,其危害不仅于当代,而且严重影响了子孙后代的生存。 环境问题在很大程度上是由于人们的不良设计、生活方式造成的后果。于是 给设计师们提出了一个严肃的问题: 作为设计师, 应肩负起保护环境的历史重任!

工业在为人类创造大量物质财富的同时,也给世界带来了灾难。工业设计在 为人类创造了现代生活方式的同时,也加速了资源、能源的消耗,并对地球的生 态平衡造成了巨大的破坏。 所以,作为工业设计师,建立环境意识体现了其道德和社会责任心。设计师 必须对自己的设计负责,必须把人类的健康幸福,自然与人类的和谐共存作为设 计中心遵循的原则。 设计师还必须掌握必要的材料、工艺、化工、制造等方面的知识,使得其设 计不对环境造成危害而成为可能。 “可持续发展设计”这一概念的提出,对于人性的回归及世界真正意义上的 发展具有划时代的意义。他体现了设计师的道德与责任,已成为 21 世纪设计发 展的总趋势。从此,人类传统工业文明发展模式转向现代生态文明发展模式。它 是社会进步,经济增长,环境保护三者之间的协同。 可持续发展是人们应遵循的一种全新的伦理、 道德和价值观念。 其本质在于: 充分利用现代科技,大力开发绿色资源,发展清洁生产,不断改善和优化生态环 境,促使人与自然的和谐发展,人口、资源和环境相互协调。 解决可持续反展问题是一个技术创新和行为模式转变的问题。 可持续发展战略是解决在不危害未来几代人的需求前提下, 尽量满足当代人 的需求的问题。实现目前利益与长远利益的统一,为子孙后代留下发展空间。 目前可持续发展战略考虑的问题有:循环性、绿色能源、生态效率。 绿色设计源于人们对于现代技术文化所引起的环境及生态破坏的反思。 绿色 设计着眼于人与自然的生态平衡关系, 在设计过程的每一个决策中都充分考虑到 环境效益,尽量减少对环境的破坏。 对工业设计师而言,绿色设计的核心是“3R” ,即“减少” (Reduce) “再 、 循环”(Recycle)和“再利用” (Reuse)。不仅要尽量减少物质和能源的消耗、减 少有害物质的排放,而且要使产品及零件能够方便的分类回收,并再生循环或重 新利用。绿色设计不仅是一种技术层面的考虑,更重要的是一种观念上的变革。 要求设计师放弃那种过分强调产品在外观上标新立异的做法, 而将重点放在真正 意义上的创新上面,已一种更为负责的方法去创造产品的形态,用更简洁、长久 的造型使产品尽可能地延长其使用寿命。

从材料方面要考虑:原材料的存量和可再生性,获取材料时的环境能源的消 耗与污染,后续加工时环境材料的易加工性,低能耗性、低污染性,报废时的可 回收性。 从加工制造方面要考虑:加工制造阶段需要将污染减至最少,或将污染消灭 在生产过程初始阶段。 从包装、运输、销售等方面要考虑:包装的环境性能、绿色包装,良好的可 运输性、降低自重、减少能耗,当地化生产及减少物流过程消耗。 从产品的使用阶段考虑:使用中的能耗、资源消耗。产品更新换代时环境性 能的模块化、可重组性、产品的使用模式等因素。 从产品的报废阶段考虑:易拆卸性,便于分解和分类,材料可回收性和可再 利用性,零部件可重组性或移作它用等因素。 清洁的能源:如考虑太阳能、水电、风力的清洁燃料;清洁的材料,涉及低 污染、无毒、易降解和可回收性;清洁的制造过程,考虑低能耗、少排放的制造; 清洁的产品,涉及使用中节能、环保、报废后的回收。 零部件的再生利用湿可持续战略的有力措施。 事实证明: 报废的产品拆卸后, 经分析,其中材料在改进设计后可重用和经翻新后可重用的比例可以提高。 比如:一辆报废车中,金属材料占 80%,其中,有色金属占 3%~4.7%。 世界钢产量中的 45%是由废钢铁生产出的。中国钢产量的 25%是由废钢铁生产 的。 产品全生命周期管理是指从人对产品的需求开始, 到产品淘汰报废的全部生 命历程。其中包括产品需求分析产品计划、概念设计、产品设计、数字化仿真、 工艺准备、工艺规划、生产测试和质量监控、销售与分销、使用、维护与维修, 以及报废与回收等主要阶段。 将先进的管理理念和一流的信息技术有机融入到现 代企业的工业和商业运作中, 从而使企业在数字经济时代能够有效地调整经营手 段和管理方式,以发挥企业前所未有的竞争优势。帮助企业进行产品创新,赢得 市场,并获得额外利润,以提高企业产品的价值。


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