? ? ? ? ?
TR CC LR GRA Task Response Coherence and Cohesion Lexical Resources Grammar Range and Accuracy
? 重点 ? LR & GRA ? With the world is developing, the computer, as well some the other technologies, have gain popular, great given much people convenient and efficient. ? 学校应该给学生提供一些对他们今后职业生涯有帮助的学 术课程。 ? 为了减少社会上的暴力犯罪，政府应对电影和电视里的暴 力情节进行控制。 ? 课时安排
? S+V ? S+V+O ? S+V+P ? S+V+O+O ? S+V+O+OC Improper eating habits damage our health. I wish you a good journey. The project sounds quite convincing and constructive. Robots can make humans replaceable and even extinct. The Era of Globalization has already come.
? ? ? ? ?
电视观众的人数在晚上8点到10点之间急剧上升。 不良的饮食习惯有害健康。 一些棘手的问题已经出现。 网上一些信息是误导人和带有欺骗性的。 该表格向我们展示了关于收入和年龄之间关系的调查结果。
? 过量使用肥料和杀虫剂可能导致环境的恶化。 ? 紧张的生活令许多人生病。
Vocabulary: Task One
? 上升动词：go upwards, keep an upward trend，increase, rise, grow, jump, climb ? 下降动词：go downwards, keep a downward tendency， decrease, decline, fall, drop ? 波动类：fluctuate (vi.) fluctuation(n.) ? 持平类：remain the same, keep stable (v.) plateau (n.) ? 修饰动词的副词： ? 幅度小slightly, slowly, gradually, gently, subtly ? 幅度大: significantly, sharply, dramatically, rapidly, ? P77
Vocabulary: Task One
? ? ? ? ? 简单句句型 V + adv There be + a +adj. +n. 时间+ Witness/see +adj. +n 趋势 + be found
? 从1999年到2009年，由铁路运输的货物从300万吨快速上 升到400万吨。 ? 出生率在1995年到2000这五年期间内有剧烈的波动。 ? 在五年的慢速下降之后，高中的学生人数开始上升。 ? 在2002年，女性就业者的比率比男性少15%
? and, but, so ? 有些富人过着奢侈的生活，而许多贫穷的农民过着贫困的 生活并面临饥寒。 ? 远程教育在现代教育中起到日益重要的作用，于是有些乐 观的人声称我们的孩子不必接受传统教育。 ? however, therefore, nevertheless, as a result, thus, in contrast, similarly, for example, at the same time, on the other hand, consequently, furthermore, additionally 连接 性副词 与分号和句号搭配
? scarcity, disposable, emission, organic, ecosystem, sustainable, awareness, tackle, preservation, recycling, energy crisis, relieve, extinction, biodiversity, global warming, environmentally-friendly ? 在解决空气污染的问题上，目前的进展甚微。 ? 海平面的上升导致大量物种的灭绝。 ? 保护环境和保护生态多样性对于人类都是非常重要的。 ? 所有的动物和植被丰富了我们的生态系统。 ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句 The story was true. He told me a story. Pay attention to my story. My brother is a doctor. Alice, my sister, lives abroad. What he said was true. He told me that he was going. Pay attention to what I said. My belief is that he would pass. The news that he won made us happy.
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? There is a popular saying______ (family instability causes social instability.) No one knows exactly ________. (Is there life on other planet?) No one knew_______. (Would interest rate rise?) I am interested in the question _____ (Will people live on the moon someday?) No one knows for sure________(Will the gains be greater than the losses?) My question is ______(do we have enough time to go to the movie?) _______ is wholly new kind of police force. (What do we need?) Children often ask_______ (how do bears survive winter?) ________ has not been decided yet. (who will chair the meeting?) _______ is still a mystery. (why did he refuse to cooperate with us?) Could you tell me_______ (where is the post office?) My question is _______ (where are we going to have our holidays?)
? 句型 ? 翻译 ? 我们开始意识到一个显而易见的事实，那就是发展是有限的。
? ? ? ?
我的观点是，年轻人应该受到鼓励去开拓视野。 很明显，父母给子女的影响比老师大得多 人脑最大的迷团是它如何理解和产生语言的 该数据显示发展中国家和工业化国家在教育和科技上存在着 极大的差别
? elementary education, secondary education, higher education ? unaffordable, compulsory education, authority, basic/ fundamental knowledge, potential, peer, ? motivate, educated, formation of character, school year, curriculum ? to learn by heart, to take an examination, face-to-face communication, stimulate one's interest ? 义务教育对提高国家人口的基本素质至关重要。 ? 显然，他们忽视了教育是人生重要部分这一基本事实。 ? 是否基因决定孩子的思维以及性格的形成，在现在教育中 引起了广泛争论。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
先行词和关系代词。 I don’t like picky people. I don’t like people who never keep their words. 关系代词 that who which whom whose I enjoy the music very much. We are listening to the music. 省略 who & whom that & which
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
We ate the fruit (I bought the fruit) She bought the computer (The computer ranked first in the recommending list.) I met the woman yesterday on the square (She was feeding pigeons) The man was arrested (I reported the man to the police) The food was delicious (David cooked the food) I am talking about friends. (You can share everything with the friends) The scientist and his achievements are admired by us all. (You told me about scientist and his achievements) I apologized to the woman. I spilled the the woman's coffee. The professor is excellent. I took his courses last year.
when where why This is the town______ I spent my childhood. This is the town______ I told you about before. I will never forget the day_____ I spent on campus. I will never forget the day_____ we first met in the park. The day _____ began brightly ended with a violent storm. The day _____ we don’t bother to go to the office but just work at home may soon come.
限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。 He has a daughter who works in a hospital. He has a daughter, who works in a hospital. Beijing, which is the capital of China, is a three-dimensional car parking lot. My father, who is a famous writer, graduated from Beijing University. Her husband, who is a journalist, has been to several countries. The animal experiment has been cancelled, which is exactly what we expect. 许多汽车停在路旁，这正是交通阻塞的直接原因。
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那些支持死刑的人持有以下理由。 拥有外国学位的学生似乎更加自信，独立和见多识广。 众所周知，互联网是把双刃剑。 如线图所示，鱼肉的消费量从1979年到2004年一直是消 费量最小的一种肉，基本在50克左右波动。 ? 动物园是个理想的研究中心， 科学家们可以在动物身上做 实验，找出一些疾病的成因并研制出新的疗法。 ? 这就是我为什么不赞成在公共场所安装摄像机的原因。
? digital, scientific research, technological boom times, research discoveries, innovation, accessible, advance in science and technology, curiosity about more unknown fields, online shopper, electronic products ? 随着科技的高速发展，电脑、电子辞典、机器人等高智能 电子产品正在逐步走进普通百姓的生活。 ? 政府在科学研究中起关键作用；尽管如此，私人公司在从 事科学研究方面还是有特定的优势。
? 时间状语从句 ? when, whenever, as , while, before, after, until, till, since, , once, as soon as ? As long as everyone is fully aware of the significance of environmental protection and takes some effective measures, I am fully confident that we can overcome the pollution problem.
? 地点状语从句 ? Where
? 原因状语从句 ? Because, as, since, due to, owing to, due to the fact that, owing to the fact that ? Since students are in their formative years, sometimes they cannot tell right from wrong. ? 目的状语从句 ? So that, in order that, in case, for fear that ? We should avoid eating food with high fat and high calories so that we can stay healthy.
? 目的状语从句 ? So that, in order that, in case, for fear that ? We should avoid eating food with high fat and high calories so that we can stay healthy. ? 让步状语从句 ? though, although, no matter, even if, despite, in spite of, (the fact that) ? Although the Internet technology is widely used in classroom teaching, the role of traditional teaching cannot be replaced. ? 比较状语从句 ? The+ 比较级，the +比较级 ? The more we know about the wildlife, the better we will live in the future.
? 尽管远程教育很先进和方便，传统教育依然是主流的教育 形式。 ? 如果要在两种观点之间选择，我会毫不犹豫地选择前者。 ? 虽然科学技术的进步给我们带来了很多好处，但是也在某 种程度上对人类生活带来了负面影响。 ? 我们使用越多的矿物燃料，如煤炭，石油和天然气, 我们 向大气中排放的二氧化碳就越多。 ? 由于人们对这热点问题持有许多不同观点， 一场激烈的争 论在所难免。 ? 自从十年前西式快餐进入中国后，我们的饮食结构发生了 巨大变化。
? media violence, vulnerable, media freedom, celebrity, private life, violent behavior, commit violence, aggressive behaviour, informative / persuasive advertisements, firsthand information, audience rating, mass media, be exposed to ? 媒体自由是否应该被限制是一个被激烈争论的话题。 ? 如果不采取保护措施，我们就不难发现更多的孩子会被媒 体暴力所影响。 ? 媒体暴力,包括对暴力行为的详细描绘,是导致社会暴力和 观众的攻击性想法和行为的部分原因。
? 动词的六种形式。 ? Police hunting the killer of an actress are seeking a man wearing a hooked top seen running away from the scene. ? People used books to learn grammar. ? Books used have fatal limits. ? 常见结构 ? Look forward to ? Be used to ? Be accustomed to ? Object to ? Contribute to ? Lead to ? Be committed to ? Devote Sth to doing
? 逻辑主语 ? Do you mind opening the door? ? Do you mind my /me opening the door?
? 对自己的未来职业做出明智的选择至关重要。 ? 让孩子们接触过多的暴力与色情对他们的成长有害。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? To study abroad is my dream. Studying abroad is fun. Afford encourage admit avoid attempt tend promise anticipate appreciate enable 作定语 The next train to arrive Wish to change Time to go A good place to eat A letter to write 用来坐的椅子 一些需要担心的事情 一个上学的机会 传播信息的经济 的途径 保护隐私的基本权利
? 表示目的结果 ? Media companies make large amount of the news to boost sales and attract more advertisements ? 我们政府应采取更强硬的措施来对付乱丢垃圾的行为。 ? 慢跑是一种很有效的减肥方法。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 现在分词 主动 进行 过去分词 被动 完成 The sinking ship The sunken ship Developing countries Developed countries Exploiting class Exploited class Walking stick Fishing boat
? 落日 落叶 正在叫的狗 摔碎的杯子 朝南的房间 吸烟区 听力材 料 UFO ? 父母给的零用钱 台湾进口的水果 表格所显示的数据 德国生产 的电子产品 ? Surprised tired disappointed annoyed shocked ? Surprising tiring disappointing annoying shocking ? 作状语 ? Seen from the hill, the city looks beautiful. ? Seeing from the hill, I think the city is beautiful. ? he had left school at twelve. ? he had no qualification. ? At 3 am Simon came in. ? He woke everybody in the house. ? it is sent early. ? it should arrive tomorrow
? ? ? ?
日益恶化的环境已经引起了公众的关注。 住在乡下，人们很少社交活动，缺乏娱乐和休闲设施。 采纳了新方法后，工厂的产量提高了48%。 通过收取各种税收，政府可以调节各个社会阶层的税收负 担，减少贫富差距。 ? 没有人可以避免被广告影响。
Vocabulary: Social Problems
? infrastructure, corruption, public facilities, medical care, international aid, entertainment, one-child policy, sense of responsibility, retirement, the elderly/ the senior citizen, social stability, employment pressure, murderer, capital punishment / death penalty ? 在过去的几十年，先进的医疗技术已经使得人们比过去活 的时间更长成为可能。 ? 成千上万的人们不得不花费更多的精力和时间学习新的技 术和知识，使得他们在就业市场能保持优势。 ? 汽车不仅污染城市空气，而且使城市拥挤不堪。
? London was found to be the least punctual city, with 41 per cent of respondents admitting that they were hardly ever on time, compared with the national average of 28 per cent. Cardiff was the most punctual city where 19.8 per cent stated that they were typically late. David Holmes, a social psychologist at Manchester Metropolitan University, said: “Good timekeeping is becoming a forgotten social etiquette, with a new generation considering lateness the norm rather than a faux pas that should be avoided.” “Mobile phones have broken many social taboos, with people answering calls in the middle of a conversation or chatting away on the toilet. This again demonstrates the effect modern technology has on our behavior.”
? 这个国家在1901年和1941年的人口结构完全相同，95% 的人在60岁以下，4%在60至80岁之间，1%的人大于80 岁。 ? 我认为住养老院对老人比较好，有专业的护士照顾他们， 有同龄人互相陪伴。 ? 带着对火星的兴趣，一些科学家开始研究一个问题，生命 是否可能存在。 ? 核能被认为是世界上最有争议的新能源，大部分人认为它 使国家摆脱了自然资源的限制，但是一小部分认为它对人 类安全有巨大的威胁。
? 首段的写法 ? 同义词替换 ? show: describe, illustrate, give information about, indicate ? number: figure, data, statistics ? proportion: percentage, share, ratio ? different: various, varying ? kind: type, category ? male: men ? female: women ? country: nation ? family: household ? time:
? meat consumption ? oil production ? car ownership
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 线形图写作思路 首段 中间段 1. 分别描写每条线 n<3 2. 线以类聚 （共同特征要写明） 3. 时间划分 结尾段：补充特征
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
饼图写作思路 首段 中间段 1. 转化为线图 （有时间） 2. 数据对比 （无时间） 3. 分别描写每个饼 （实在没关系） 结尾段：补充特征
? ? ? ? 柱状图写作思路 中间段 以其中一个系列信息为主，另一系列为辅 结尾段：补充特征
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 表格的写作思路 首段 中间段 1. 转化为线图 （有时间） 2. 数据对比 （两列，可对比） 3. 分别描写每个列 结尾段：补充特征
? ? ? ? 混合多图的写作思路 中间段 先写一个图，再写另一个图 结尾段：总结两个图的最大特征
? ? ? ? ? 历年真题 大作文的分类 argument （双边or单边） report “四步走”解题策略
? 1 背景句(现状/设问/定义) ? 2 改写题目 ? 3 表达个人观点或主题
? Some people strongly oppose animal experimentation, believing that it caused pain to animals, while some other people consider it necessary. What is your opinion? ? Every year, millions of animals undergo painful suffering or death as a result of scientific research into the effects of drugs, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. While most people think animal testing is necessary, others are upset by what they see as needless suffering. This essay will look at some of the positive and negative aspects of animal testing.
Creative artists should be given extra freedom to express their ideas (words, pictures, music and films). However, some people think the government should put some restrictions on them. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion？ Art is always regarded as abstract and symbolic works which need people’s imagination and originality. Therefore, many people argue that artists should be given additional freedom to fully express their creativity through characteristic words, pictures, music or films. However, from my point of view, I think somewhat differently. Many countries establish a system of single-sex education in which boys and girls go to separate schools. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of it. Should students be separated into single-sex schools to spend their childhood? Many parents’ answer is “yes” because they see many advantages for a segregated education. However, I can’t endure a single-sex education system.
? …….is a topic of public interest and concern. ? Perhaps the hottest topic in the area of …. Is the widespread use of…. ? ……has received a great amount of attention throughout the world. ? In recent years, the debate …… has been fuelled /intensified by….. ? People have, in recent years, shown concern on …… ? No issue in recent years has drawn as much attention as the debate surrounding….. ? For the last twenty years or so, the issue of...……has been subject to nothing but endless dispute.
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改写题目 While some people think...., others hold that... On one hand,........ On the other hand,..... There is much controversy over whether….. Whether….or not has sparkled spirited debate.
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表达观点 Believe/deem/maintain/reckon/argue/assume I hold the opinion/belief/notion/position/standpoint that… As I see/view the issue/ discussion/ argument/ controversy ? My viewpoint/notion is that
? ? ? ? ? ? 四大经典Argument错误( 总分立马扣1分) 1. No Argument presented ； 2. Repeated vocabulary ，Sentences 3. Chi-English real English 4. too arbitrary considering double sides 5. illogical
? ? ? ? ?
Topic－Should college students be allowed to get married? This topic is very interesting. I’m very interested in talking about this topic. Because I’m also a college student and I’m not married…… 修改方案：开门见山直奔主题 When it comes to …… In my opinion, it would not be a wise decision to allow college students to get married.
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? Topic 3－Will modern technology, such as the Internet, ever replace the book or the writing word as the sole source of information? ? Ok,this topic is a very good topic. First, let me tell you a story:I have a friend, he likes go on the internet very much. Every day, he uses internet to read news or play internet games.So we can see the internet is more and more important in our daily life.
? 典型失败案例： ? Topic－Your opinion on DINK families ? My opinion on DINK families is that DINK families is not a good thing. And it is a bad thing. It brings no benefits to our society and it is even sometimes harmful to our society.
? Topic 1－The happiest moment in your life ? In our life, there are always some moments which make your heart flower opened angrily…… ? Topic B－Is it good to have a large family? ? I think it is good to have a large family. Because we Chinese believe a sentence: “Many sons, many lucks”…… ? Happiness lies in having many children
? Topic1－The importance of confidence ? In my opinion, confidence is the most important thing for a person. All the successful people in the world are full of confidence. While those people who don’t have confidence,they all have failed.
? Topic 2 －The solution to the traffic problem ? I think to solve the traffic problem, very easy! For those who do not obey the traffic rules, we should put all of them into prison. If we do that, I’m sure there will be no traffic problem any more.
? More or less, to some extent, to large extent, ? Someday, sooner or later, ? Almost , ? necessarily ( always); ? Probably ? tend to be…be inclined to be
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? More General 1.Things are good with other things. 2.Things you eat are good with flavorings. 3.Sandwiches are good with condiments. 4.Hamburgers are good with ketchup. More Specific 1.McDonald’s hamburgers are good with Heinz Ketchup. 2.The hamburgers at the McDonald’s restaurant inXiamen, are good with the Heinz Ketchup that comes in those little plastic packs. ? 3.The hamburger I ate for lunch today at the McDonald’s restaurant in Xiamen, was good with two packs of Heinz Ketchup.
? Firstly, it is delicious/tasty to have food with condiments. ? Especially/actually, when you are ordering hamburgers it is suggested to go with ketchup. A case in point,the hamburgers at the McDonald’s restaurant in Xiamen, are good with the Heinz Ketchup that comes in those little plastic packs.
? Museum should be a place for education because people learn knowledge by visiting museums and galleries.
? Actually, tourists or even citizens can learn one city’s history ,artistic achievement, or even social customs via spending one day or two in local museums. ? A case in point, when foreign visitors come to Beijing, it is highly recommend for them to visit Forbidden city，one of the biggest musems in China to exhibit and demonstrate profound and extensive Chinese culture.
? ? ? ? Short, Simple, Clear, Give a strong idea Often use phrases such as: One of the main reasons for ….. lies in the fact that.... One of the strongest arguments against/ in favour of………is that …. ? One of the main advantages / disadvantages of ………….is that …… ? People who harbor the opinion that.... may argue that...
? 2012.3.8 社会类 ? Many people fail to achieve a balance between work and the other parts of life. What causes the situation？ How to overcome this problem？ ? 2012.06.16 A 社会类 ? Nowadays, an increasing number of people do not know their neighbors and the sense of community is weaker. What are the causes of the situation and how to solve it? ? 2012.7.21 A 社会类 ? In most cities and towns, the high volumes of road traffic become a problem. What are the causes of that and what actions could be taken to solve the problem?
? ….. What does this problem cause？ ? ……What causes this problem ？
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Para 1 Introduction= what it is？+ Thesis or Reasons Para 2 过渡句，first, primary cause + reasons/examples Para 3 Secondly, additional cause + reasons/ examples Para 4 过渡句，solution 1 + solution 2+…….. Para 5 To sum，…. Conclusion (可选)
? 主要原因：the primary, chief, major, main, principal+ reason/factor/cause ? 次要原因：additional，secondary，extra
What the causes?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? How should we say? 中心句format Cause-effect 因果表达 （1）…AAA… 导致/成为（原因）…BBB.. （2）……BBB….可以归结于……AAA…. （3）导致…BBB…原因是…AAA……… AAA =？ BBB= this problem/ situation/Trend
? 1.（AAA1）leads to/breeds/the increasing number of youth unemployment. ? 2.The main reason of joblessness is owed/ attributed/due to （AAA2）. ? 3.The additional cause which results inthe unemployment (lay-off) is/ can be found in（AAA3)
BBB= youth unemployment
? AAA=??? ? 1. The lack of working experience（AAA1） ? 2. youth’s problem at interpersonal relationship（AAA2）. ? 3.the lack of (absence of) specific law（AAA3）to promote youth employment ? 4.Aiming too high, unwilling to accept a beginner's offer. ? 5.Economic depression
? 1.The lack of working experience of youngsters leads to the increasing number of youth unemployment. ? 2.The main reason of joblessness is owed toyouth’s problem at interpersonal relationship. ? 3.The additional cause which results in the unemployment is the lack of specific law to promote youth employment
? The government (states, countries)/ legislature/congress ? Organizations and companies ? The public/ common citizens/ local residence/ dwellers/neighbours in communities/ people who belong to a community ……..大家 ? Individuals = myself…..
The government / legislature
? 做什么？ ? 经济：刺激补贴·收税罚款 ? Introduce financial policy aiming to stimulate…….. /offer subsidiary in order to promote……../ levy tax of……./ Introduce a severe fine on doing ? 立法 ? Draft a suitable law aiming to/ which can be applied in the ? Outlaw/ ban/ remove doing ……. 取缔，禁止 ? 监督 ? Enforce/strengthen the performance and supervision / restrictions /censorship on the deed that……..