初中英语语法资料(含讲义与练习题)

第一讲
一 名词:

名词和冠词

世界上由万事万物构成的,这些事物各有名称,表示这些名称的名词叫作名词。名词的分类: 专有名词和普通名词 专有名词:表示具体的人名,事物,地名,机构和节日等名称的词称为专有名词。 (专有名词开头第一个字母必须大写) ① 表示人: Yang Liwei 杨利伟 Alice 爱丽丝 ② 表示事物: the Changjiang River 长江 December 十二月 ③ 表示地名: Macao 澳门 New York 纽约 ④ 表示节日: Christmas Day 圣诞节 Children’s Day 儿童节 ⑤ 表示机构: WTO 世界贸易组织 the University of London 伦敦大学 普通名词:指一类人,事物,物质或抽象概念的名称。 类



个体名词






computer 电脑 army 军队 family 警察 water 水



taxi 出租车 scientist 科学家 用来指单个人或者事物的名词。 用来指一群人或一些事物总称的名词。 集体名词 police 警察 class 班级 wind 风 love 热爱 steel 钢铁

普 通 名 词

数 名 词 不 可 数 名 词

物质名词

用来指无法分为个体的物质,材料的名词。

glass 玻璃 silence 安静 life 生活

honesty 诚实 抽象名词 用来指人或事物的品质,情感,状态或动作 等抽象概念的名词。

(一)名词的单复数形式: 可数名词的单复数形式 1. 规则变化 构成法 一般情况在词尾加-s 以 s,x,sh,ch 结尾的词,在词尾加-es 以 ce,se,ze, (d)ge 等结尾的词直接加-s 以辅音字母+y 结尾的词,y 变成 i 再加-es 以辅音字母+o 结尾的词,多数在词尾加-es 以元音字母+o 结尾的词和某些以 o 结尾的 外来词,加-s 以 f 或 fe 结尾的词, 多数变 f 或 fe 为 v,加-es, 少数不变,只在词尾加-s 2. 不规则变化 ⑴ 名词复数的特殊形式 man—men, woman—women, policeman—policemen, Englishman—Englishmen, foot—feet, tooth—teeth, child—children, German—Germans ⑵ 有些名词的单复数形式同形
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例 shop-shops desk-desks bus-buses box-boxes watch-watches brush--brushes face-faces house-houses page—pages baby—babies city—cities factory—factories story--stories tomato—tomatoes potato—potatoes radio—radios piano—pianos hero—heroes photo—photos zoo--zoos

life—lives knife—knives wife—wives roof—roofs

Chinese, Japanese, deer, sheep, fish ⑶ 合成名词,只将其主题词变为复数形式 girl student—girl students pencil-box—pencil-boxes ⑷ 由 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,全部变成复数 man doctor—men doctors ⑸ 只有复数的名词 woman teacher ---women teachers

trousers, glasses, thanks, clothes, goods, compasses, stairs, people, scissors, chopsticks ⑹ 不可数名词的数量表达
a piece of bread/meat; five drops of water; shoes; eight basketball of apples; nine piece of news 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 1. Mrs. Lenny gave us ______________ on how to learn English well. A) some advices B) many advices C) some advice D) an advice 2. If these trousers are too big, buy a small _______________ A) set B) one C) pair D) copy 3. A group of __________ are talking about two ______________ A) Frenchmans; Germen B) Germans; Frenchmans C) Frenchmen; Germans D) German; Frenchmen 4. ---What would you like to drink, girls? ---______________, please. A) two cup of coffee B) two cups of coffee C) two cups of coffees D) two cup of coffees 5. My mother and my sister are both _____________________ A) woman teachers B)women teacher C) woman teacher D) women teachers 6. We needn’t buy any __________. There are many in the fridge. A) fruit B) milk C) meat D) eggs 7. How many ___________ can you see? A) milks B) a glass of milk C) glasses of milks D) glasses of milk 8. I think maths ______________ very useful. A) is B) are C) am D) be 9. The little baby has two __________ already. A) tooth B) tooths C) teeth D) teeths 10. I’m thirsty, please make _________ for me. A) a tea B) a cup of tea C) teas D) a cup of teas B 组:用所给词的正确形式填空 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I have two _________________(knife). They come from different _________________(country). The _________(meet) begins at 2:00 in the afternoon. We have quite lots of nice ___________(photo). Let me show you some of them. How many ___________(foot) does a cat have? There are many ___________(bus) on the road. Look at the picture, a lion is running after a group of _____________(deer).
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six bags of rice; seven pairs of

8. Here is a birthday card for you with our best _____(wish). 9. Changjiang River is one of the longest ______________(river) in China. 10. The students in Class 1 are all __________________(Japan). C 组:判断对错 1. A: My glasses is broken. ( ) B: My glasses are broken. ( ) 2. A: I want to buy two pairs of shoes. ( ) B: I want to buy two shoes. ( ) 3. A: I need a few ink. ( ). B: I need a little ink. ( ) 4. A: Don’t eat too much meat. ( ) B: Don’t eat too much meats. ( ) 5. A: May I borrow two radioes? ( ) B: May I borrow two radios? ( ) (二) 名词所有格:表示名词所属关系的一种形式 1. 单数名词的所有格,只需在词尾加’s Jim’s sister Lucy’s pen 2. 以 s 结尾的复数名词的所有格,只加’ the students’ book Teachers’ Day 3. 不以 s 结尾的复数名词的所有格,应加’s Children’s Day Women’s Day 4. 表示几个人共有的东西,只需要在最后一个人的名词后面加’s, Lucy and Lily’s bedroom 5. 表示各自所有的, 则每个名词都加’s Lucy’s and Lily’s desks 6. 名词所有格常用省略式, 省去被名词所有格修饰的名词 at the doctor’s 7. “of+ 名词所有格”,通常作后置定语,这种结构通常指整体中的部分或一个 a friend of my father’s A 组: 选择最佳答案 the window of the room

1. Tony’s car is more beautiful than _______________________. A) his brother’s and sister B) his brother and sister C) his brothers and sisters D) his brother and sister ’s 2. ---How long does it take to get to the station? ---It’s ____________ walk. A) six minute’s B) six-minutes C) six minutes’ D) six minutes 3. These are _____________ bikes. A) Jin and Sam’s B) Jim’s and Sam C) Jim and Sam D) Jim’s and Sam’s 4. Twelve __________ were hurt, but no __________ were lost in the accident. A) person; life B) people; lives C) peoples; lives D) persons; life 5. There’s something important in _________________. A) paper of today B) today newspaper ’s C) today newspaper D) today’s newspaper 6. Miss Smith is a friend of _______________ A) Mary’s mother’s B) Mary’s mother C) Mary mother’s D) mother’s of Mary 7. Joan is _____________ sister. A) Mary and Jack B) Mary’s and Jack’s C) Mary’s and Jack D) Mary and Jack’s 8. I will give you __________ to finish it. A) two week’s time B) two week time C) two weeks’ time D) two weeks time 9. This is not your radio, but __________________ A) yours brother B) your brother’s C) you brother’s D) yours brother’s
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10. My school is about twenty __________ walk from here? A)minute B) minutes’ C) minute’s

D) minutes

二 冠词 :
英语中名词前常会出现 a,an 或 the 这三个词, 用来说明名词所表示的人或事物, 冠词是虚词, 是名词的一种标志,它不能脱离名词独立存在,不能单独作句子成分。 (一)不定冠词 a; an 1. 不定冠词表示数量中的“一个”,但是数的概念没有 one 强烈。修饰单数可数名词。 用来指人 或物中的某一个或某一类,但不具体说明何人何物。a 用在辅音因素开头的词前, a pen, a useful book; an 用在以元音因素开头的词前,an apple, an hour, an honest boy 2. 用在某些固定的短语中: in a minute, for a walk, have a good time, have a look 等 (二)定冠词的用法 1. 特指说话双方都知道的人或事物。 Look at the blackboard. 2. 用在表示宇宙中独一无二的事物的名词前。 the sun, the moon, the earth 3. 对前面已提到过的人或事物,第二次提到时加定冠词,用以表示特指。 I found a picture in the box. The picture was very beautiful. 4. 用在序数词或形容词最高级前。 They live on the tenth floor. 5. 用在某些形容词前,表示“一类人” the old, the young, the poor, the rich, the deaf, the blind 6. 用在乐器名称前 play the violin play the piano 7. 在姓氏的复数形式之前,表示一家人 the Smiths the Lis 8. 用在方位词前 9. 用在表示海洋,河流,山脉,群岛及国家和党派等名词前 10. 用在某些固定的词组中 in the morning in the open air (三) 不用冠词的情况 1. 某些专有名词前 China, Class Four, 2. 在球类运动名称和三餐饭前面,一般不用冠词 have lunch, play football 3. 在季节,日期,星期,节日和学科的名称前,不用冠词 in spring, in June, on Monday 4. 在不可数名词(抽象名词和物质名词)前面, 一般不用冠词 We have all played with snow and ice. 5. 名词前面已经作定语用的 this, these, that, those, my, their, your, his, some, many 等 词时,常常不用冠词。 her pocket, this handbag, some pizza 6. 一些习惯用法和固定短语中, 常不用冠词 in bed, after school, by bus 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 1. There’s ____________ “h” in the word “house”. A) a B) / C) an D) the 2. Jack bought _________ useful book. _________ book is also very interesting. A) an; The B) a; The C) an; / D) a; A 3. ---Can I help you, madam? ---I’m looking for ________pair of shoes for my daughter. A) the B) an C) a D) some 4. _________ elephant is much heavier than a house. A) A B) An C) The D) / 5. After watching TV, she played __________ guitar for an hour.
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A) / B) the C) an D) a 6. ---Where is Xiao Ming? ---He’s having _________ rest over there. A) a B) an C) the D) / 7. We have three meals ______ day. We have _____ breakfast at 6:30 in _____morning every day. A) the; the; the B) the;/; the C) a;/;the d) a; the; the 8. The cartoon “Mulan” is _______ interesting film and ________ story happened in China. A) a; the B) an; the C) the; a D) an; a 9. In the United States, Father’s Day falls on _______ third Sunday in _________ June. A) the; / B) the; a C) /; the D) a; / 10. What ________ interesting book it is! A) a B) an C) the D) / B 组:判断对错 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Please turn off lights before you leave. ( I live on a second floor of this building. ( I like to climb the mountain in the autumn. ( The little boy wanted to go to cinema. ( I went to New York by car. ( ) ) ) ) )

本节妙语巧记 名词单数变复数规则: 名词单数变复数,一般加-s 没有错。 词尾若是 s,x,ch,sh, 直接加上—es 。 词尾若是 f 或 fe, 加 –s 之前要变 ve。 “辅音字母+y”来结尾,变 y 为 i 有道理,再加-es 没问题。 词尾字母若是 o, 加-es 有 tomato 和 potato。 不规则变化要特别记,oo 常要变 ee, foot—feet 是一例。 男人女人 a 变 e, woman—women 看仔细。 child 复数要记住,“孩子们“ 是 children。 定冠词的用法: 特指双方熟悉,上文以及提及; 世上独一无二, 序数词最高级; 某些专有名词,习惯用语乐器。

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第二讲
一 代词

代词和数词

代词是代替名词以及起名词作用的短语,不定式,动词的-ing 形式或句子的词。 1. 人称代词: 人称代词的主格在句子中做主语,宾格在句子中作宾语或表语。
格 数

单数 主格 宾格 主格

复数 宾格





第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

I you he,she,it

me you him,her,it

we you they

us you them

注意: 不同的人称合在一起使用时,一般的排序为: 单数:you and I; you and he; he and I; you, he and I 复数:we and you; we and they; you and they; we, you and they 2. 物主代词:表示所有关系的代词,是人称代词的所有格形式,表示“所有” 词义 类型 形容词性 名词性 我的 my mine 你的 your 他的 his 她的 her 它的 its 我们的 our 你们的 your
他(她,它)们的

their

your his hers its ours yours theirs s 3. 反身代词: 表示我(们)自己,你(们)自己,他、它、她(们)自己的词 人称 数 单数 复数 第一人称 myself 第二人称 yourself 第三人称 himself, herself, itself

ourselves yourselves themselves 4. 疑问代词: what,which, who, whom, whose 等 5. 指示代词: 是用来指代或标记人或事物的代词,具有指定的含义。this; that; these; those 6. 不定代词:不明确指代某个(某些)人,某个(些)事物的代词。 ⑴ some, any, many, much, a lot of 与 lots of ① many 修饰或代词可数名词的复数。 ② much 修饰或代替不可数名词。 ③ a lot of 和 lots of 既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词。 ④ some 和 any 表示“一些”,即不确定的或未知的数量数目。Some 通常用于肯定句中,any 用 于否定句,疑问句和条件句中。Some 可用在表示邀请或请求的疑问句中,强调希望对方给予肯定 回答。Would you like some apples? ⑵ other 与 another 的用法 ① other 具有代词性质,既可指人,也可指物。other 表示“另外的”,“其他的”,the other 表示 “两者中的另一个”, the others 表示“其余的 (指在一个范围内的其他全部) ”, others 用于泛指, 表示“其余的人或物”。 ② another 具有代词性质,既可指人,也可指物,表示“另一个”(是泛指中的“另外一个”,并不 是两者中的另一个)或“又一个”。 ⑶ each 与 every 表示“每一”
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① each 强调“个别”,可单独使用,也可修饰单数名词或跟 of 引导的介词短语;every 修饰单数 名词,强调“整体”,相当于汉语中的“每个都”。 ② everyone 与 every one 的区别:everyone 意为“每人”,“人人”,只指人,不指物,后面不 能跟 of 引导的介词短语;every one 意为“每个”,通常用来指物,后面能跟 of 引导的介词短语。 ③ every 及其所构成的复合代词 everybody, everyone, everything 作主语时,谓语动词用单 数。 ④ “every+基数词+复数名词”或“every+序数词+单数名词”表示“每隔……”, 译成汉语减去一: every three days 每隔两天 every third days 每三天 ⑷ no 和 none 表示“无”,“没有” ① no= not a, not any 作定语,后跟可数名词或不可数名词;none 后跟引导的介词短语,在句 中作主语或宾语,表示“没有任何东西或人”。 ② nobody, no one, nothing 只能单独使用,后面不跟 of 引导的介词短语。 ③ nobody, no one, nothing 和 none 常用作简略答语。一般情况下,nothing 回答 what 问句; nobody 或 no one 回答 who 问句;none 回答 how many 或 how much 问句。 ⑸ all, both, whole 表示“都”, “全部” ① both 指两个人或事物,而 all 指三个或者三个以上的人或事物。 ② both 和 all 都可直接修饰名词;名词前如有限定时,其前只能用 both of 或 all of.。 ③ both 和 all 在句中位于 be 动词之后,行为动词之前,如有情态动词或助动词,则位于情态动词 或助动词与行为动词之前。 注:both 的反义词是 neither; all 的反义词是 none ⑹ neither 与 either 的用法: neither 表示 “两者都不”;either 表示“两者之一”或“两者中的任何一个”。 后面跟单数名词或 “of+宾格人称代词/带限定词的复数名词”。 ⑺ few, a few 和 little, a little ① few 和 a few 指代可数名词;little 和 a little 指代不可数名词。 a little 修饰不可数名词时相 当于 a bit of. few 和 little 表示“没有几个”,“很少”, 含否定意义;a few 和 a little 表示“有 几个”,“有一些”, 含有肯定意义 ② 口语中常用 only a few 或 only a little 表示“只有一些(点)”,quite a few 表示“相当多” ⑻ one, ones 指代名词 ① one 指代单数可数名词,ones 指代复数名词,泛指某(些)人或某(些)物。 ② one 或 ones 前有 the, this, that 或 these, those 等词时,表示特指某(些)人或某(些) 物。 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 (人称代词, 物主代词,反身代词) 1. Mary, please show ___________ your picture. A) my B) mine C) I D) me 2. ---Did you find your watch yesterday? ---No, I didn’t find _________, but I’ve bought ____________________. A) it; it B) one; one C) it; one D) one; it 3. Do you know the boy sitting between Peter and _____________? A) she B) I C) his D) me 4. What’s wrong with ______________? A) him B) he C) his D) / 5. The skirt is ____________. She made it _______________. A) hers; herself B) her; herself C) herself; hers D) herself; her
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6. Let ____________ carry the heavy bag for the old woman. A) you and B) I and you C) me and you D) you and me 7. ---Would you like some more ice? ---Yes. Just _______________ A) a few B) few C) little D) a little 8. I saw _________ playing in the garden at that time. A) them B) they C) their D) theirs 9. He has a good room, but I don’t think it’s a big as ______________ A) I B) me C) mine D) my 10. Mr. Li teaches __________ English. A) us B) we C) our D) ours 11. A friend of ___________ came here yesterday. A) my B) his C) her D) your 12. You cannot finish the work __________. Let me give you a helping hand. A) you B) yourself C) by you D) you only B 组:选择最佳答案(不定代词) 1. I want _________ books to read. Do you have ___________? A) some; any B) any; some C) any; any D) some; some 2. I have two pens. One is red, _________ is blue. A) the other B) others C) other D) another 3. ---You look so happy! ---Jack says I am pretty. __________ has ever told me that before. A) Somebody B) Anybody C)Everybody D) Nobody 4. ---Can you cook eggs with tomatoes? ---Yes, of course. ____________ can do it, it is easy. A) Anyone B) Someone C) No one D) Everyone else 5. Mike and Joan are __________ good at maths. A) neither B) both C) each D) no one 6. There is _________ snow this winter. A) many B) more C) much D) a few 7. There are six people in the office. ___________ of them are Party members. A) All B) Both C) No one D) Neither 8. That scientist was too busy to work in his lab. He had ________ time to do the research work. A) few B) a few C) little D) a little 9. All the students had gone out. There was __________ in the classroom. A) somebody B) anybody C) nobody D) everybody 10. ---When shall we go to the park, this morning or this afternoon? ---_________ is OK. I’m free the whole day. A) Either B) Neither C) None D) Both C 组:用所给词的正确形式填空 1. Let _______ have a look. The coat isn’t mine. __________ coat is on the bed. (I) 2. ---Have you got ________ blue T-shirts? ---No, but we’ve got _________ brown ones. (some) 3. ---Do you like these yellow flowers? ---No, but I like the red _________(one) 4. Help _________ to some fish, Timmy. It’s delicious. (you)
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5. __________ did you go to the movie with? (who) 6. She gave the bats to you and ___________(myself) 7. David is an old classmate of ______________(we). 8. Tom runs as fast as _______________(I) D 组:单句改错:下面每句均有一处错误,指出并加以改正 ( ) 1. ---Are those English-Chinese dictionaries? ---Yes, those are. A B C D ( ) 2. Everyone of the buses is here. A B C D ( ) 3. He sister is nine this year. A B C D ( ) 4. ---Who’s that? ---It is Peter. A B C D ( ) 5. ---Who are not at school today? A B C D ( ) 6. My parents both are Chinese teachers. A B C D ( )7. There are six storybooks on the shelf. What one do you want? A B C D ( )8. She will teach our English. A B C D ( ) 9. ---Whose bike is this? ---It’s me. A BC D ( ) 10. Could you let me have any money, mother? A B C D 二 数词: 表示数目多少或顺序先后的词叫数词。数词分为基数词,序数词,小数,分数和百分数。 1. 基数词:表示数目或数量多少的词 100 以下的基本基数词 1--10 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 11--19 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20--90 20 twenty 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 以上的基本基数词 100 a/ one hundred 1,000 a/ one thousand 1,000,000 a/ one million 1,000,000,000 a/ one billion(美) a/ one million (英) thousand

10 ten ⑴表示“几十几”(21-99)的基础词,由十位数和个位数之间加连字号“-”构成。 ⑵表示“几百几”(101-999)的基数词,百位数 hundred 之后加 and, 再加十位数或个位数。 ⑶1,000 以上的数目表示方法是,从右向左用分节号“,”分节,每三个数字为一个节,第一个分 节号前用 thousand, 第二个分节号前用 million, 第三个分节号前用 billion(美) 如:1,214,000,000 one billion, two hundred and fourteen million
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⑷ 基数词表示具体数目时,hundred, thousand, million 用单数。在表示“数百”,“数千”,“数 百万”等不确定数目时,在 hundreds, thousands, millions 后接“of+名词复数”。 ⑸ 表示“几十”的基数词的复数形式,可用来表示某人的岁数或年代。 ⑹ “基础词+名词”构成的合成形容词作定语,其中的名词用单数: two-month holiday 两个月的假期 2. 序数词:表示顺序和等级 基本序数词的构成 1st 2 3
nd rd

first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eight

11th 12
th th

eleventh twelfth

20th twentieth 21
st nd

30th 40 50
th th

thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth

twenty-first

13 thirteenth 14th fourteenth 15th fifteenth 16th sixteenth 17 seventeenth 18th eighteenth 19th nineteenth
th

22 twenty-second 23rd twenty-third 24th twenty-fourth 25th twenty-fifth 26 twenty-sixth 27th twenty-seventh 28th twenty-eighth 29th twenty-ninth
th

4th 5th 6th 7
th

60th 70th 80th 90
th

8th

100th one hundredth 1000th one thousandth one

9th ninth 10th tenth

1,000,000th millionth

1,000,000,000th one billionth ⑴ 序数词前要加定冠词 the, 在句中作定语放在被修饰的名词前。 ⑵ 序数词前加不定冠词 a/an,表示“再一”, “又一”的意思 ⑶ 给东西编号时,序号在前用序数词,序号在后用基数词。 ⑷ 房间号码和电话号码要一个一个分别读。 ⑸ 分数表示法:分子用基数词,分母用序数词; 分子是 1,分母用单数;分子大于 1, 分母用 复数:one fourth 或 a quarter 1/4, three fourths 3/4 3. 年份,日期,时刻读法 ⑴ 年份:四位数通常分两组来读。 1905 读作 nineteen five 或 nineteen and five ⑵ 日期,世纪用序数词表示。 ⑶ 时刻的读法 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 1. _________ of the students are boys in our school. A) Two thirds B) Two third C) Second three D) Second thirds 2. It is ____________ next Sunday. A) Mary ninth birthday B) Mary nine birthday C) Mary’s nine birthday D) Mary’s ninth birthday 3. ---Could you please tell me what time it is now? ---Certainly, it’s ___________. A) ten and twenty B) twenty past ten C) ten twenty D) both B and C
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4. The __________ letter in the word “possible” is “i”. A) five B) second C) two D) fifth 5. It is over __________ from Shijiazhuang to Beijing. A) three hours’ drive B) three hour’s drive C) three hours’ drives D) three hours drive 6. Our summer holiday is coming. Two ________ the students in our school will go to the beach. A) hundred B) hundreds C) hundred of D) hundreds of 7. ---Excuse me, how does this number 20,135 read? ---It reads __________________ A) twenty thousands one hundred and thirty-five. B) twenty thousand one hundred thirty five C) twenty thousand one hundred and thirty- five D) twenty thousands one hundred thirty five 8. He wrote a ___________ report. A) two-thousand-words B) two-thousand-word C) two-thousands-word D) two-thousands-words 9. ---What’s one fourth and a half, do you know? ---Yes, it’s ______________________ A) two sixths B) three fourths C) one three 10. The _________ month of the year is December. A) two B) second C) twelve B 组:用所给词的正确形式填空 D) three sixths D) twelfth

1. We live on ______________ floor. (nine). 2. Please take _____________ turning on the left. (two) 3. __________ month is April. (four) 4. We will learn ____________ unit. (three) 5. __________ runner is a winner. (eight) 6. The meeting will be finished on December the _________________(twenty-three). 7. October is the ___________(ten) month of the year. 8. Look at the photo! The _________(five) man from the left is our class teacher, Mr. Wang. 9. Does Mary sit in the ___________(one) row? 10. The ____________(twelve) month of the year is December. C 组:单句改错:下面每句均有一处错误,指出并加以改正 ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. I’m in Class Three, Seven Grade. A B C D ) 2. What Grade are you in ? A B C D ) 3. It’s twelve thirty o’clock. A B C D ) 4. ---What’s the time? ---It was September 20th, 2006. A B C D ) 5. Thursday is the fiveth day of a week. A B C D ) 6. His phone number is three, four, nine; zero, nine, two, eight.
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( ( ( (

A B C D ) 7. I usually get up at half to six in the morning. A B C D ) 8. This is his twentieth-first trip this year. A B C D ) 9. It takes him half hour to get to work by car. A B C D ) 10. There are fourty students in our class. A B C D

本节妙语巧记 巧辩 few, a few 和 little, a little few 和 little 含义同,句中意义是“否定”。 a few 和 a little 含义同,句中意义是“肯定”。 few 和 little 作用同,可数名词来限定。 a few 和 a little 作用同,不可数名词来限定。 英语分数表示法及其读法歌诀 分子基数词,分母序数词。 分子大于 1,分母加-s. 分母若是 2 和 4, half, quarter 来代替。 带分数很简单,其前要把整数添。 基数词变序数词口诀 基变序,有规律,词尾加上 th ; 一二三,特殊记,词尾字母 t d d ; 八减 t ,九减 e , f 要把 ve 替 ; ty 把 y 变成 i,记住 th 前有个 e ; 几十几,更好记,只变个位就可以。

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第三讲
一 形容词

形容词和副词

形容词是描述人和事物的特征,性质,属性或状态的一种开放性词类。包括简单形容词和复 合形容词两类。 形容词的语法功能: 功能 定语 表语 解释 修饰名词, 说明其性质, 特征 例句 Harbin is a nice city in North China. There’s nothing serious at all. (没有什么要紧的事)

宾语补足语 主语补足语

与连系动词构成系表结构, 说 The tea is very strong. 明主语的性质,状态或特征。 I feel sick today. The room is bright. 说明宾语的性质, 状态或特征 Don’t make your parents angry. Who has left the door open? 说明主语的性质, 状态或特征 Hungry and tired, he had to stop working. She was standing in the dark, unable to see anything. 她在黑暗处, 什么也看不见。

1. 形容词作表语要放在系动词后面。 常见的系动词有:look 看起来,sound 听起来,smell 闻起来,taste 尝起来, get 变得, become 变成,grow 长成,turn 转变成,go 变,come 成为,seem 看上去,keep 保持。 2. 形容词修饰 something, anything, nothing, everything 等复合不定代词时,须放在代词的 后面。 3. 表示长,宽,高,深及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。 4. else 只能做后置定语。 修饰疑问代词 what, who, whom, whose 和不定代词 something, anything, nothing, somebody, anybody, nobody 等。 5. 只能作表语的形容词 afraid 害怕的;alone 独自的;asleep 睡着的;awake 醒着的; alive 活着的;well 健康 的;ill 病的;frightened 害怕的 6. 只能作定语的形容词 ⑴ little 小的,only 唯一的;wooden 木质的;woolen 羊毛质的;elder 年长的 ⑵ 复合形容词:English-speaking 说英语的;glass-topped 玻璃罩的;kind-hearted 善良 的; man-made 人造的 take-away 可以带走的 7. 貌似副词的形容词:lonely 独自的 friendly 友好的 lively 生动的 lovely 可爱的 8. 记住下列句型 ⑴ “It's + adj. + of+ sb.+不定式”表示“某人(做某事)怎么样”。 注意:这一句型中的形容词有 good, kind, nice, polite(礼貌的), clever(聪明的),foolish(愚蠢 的), lazy (懒惰的),careful( 细心的),careless(粗心的), right(正确的), wrong 等等。 ⑵ “It's + adj. +for +sb.+ 不定式”表示“做某事对某人来说怎么样” 注意:这一句型常用的形容词有 difficult(困难), easy(容易的),hard(艰难的),dangerous(危 险 的 ) , safe( 安 全 的 ) , useful( 有 益 的 ) , pleasant( 舒 适 的 ) , interesting ( 有 趣 的 ) , impossible(不可能的)等等。 ⑶ 表示感情或情绪的形容词, 如 glad(高兴的), pleased(高兴的), sorry(遗憾的, 抱歉的), sad(忧
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伤的),thankful(欣慰的)等,其后常接不定式。 ⑷ 表示能力和意志的形容词,如 ready(乐意的,有准备的),able(有能力的) ,sure(一定), certain(一定)等,其后常接不定式。 ⑸ 表 示 判 断 的 形 容 词 right, wrong, good, nice, terrible, wonderful, surprising, interesting, lucky, strange, important, necessary 等,可用于 “ It is + adj. +for sb. + 不 定式” 或“It is + adj. +that 从句”两种句型中。 9. 形容词的比较级和最高级 英语中的形容词常有三种形式来表达事物的等级差别,分别是原级、比较级和最高级。大部分形 容词的比较级和最高级是通过变化词尾来实现的,属于规则变化,但也有少数是没有规则的。 英语中有些形容词没有程度可分或形容词本身就表示某种程度,因此没有比较级和最高级。这 类形容词有: right 正确 wrong 错误 excellent 最好的 final 最后的 last 最后的 possible 可能的 first 第一 eastern 东方的 empty 空的 impossible 不可能的 wooden 木质的 favourite 最喜欢的 规则变化: 构成 一般加-er, -est 原级 long 长的 比较级 longer 更长的 nicer 更好的 later 更晚的 bigger 更大的 hotter 更热的 fatter 更胖的 thinner 更瘦的 happier 更高兴的 heavier 更重的 easier 更容易的 more ~ 更困难的 more ~更仔细的 more~更有趣的 more~更疲劳的 最高级 best worst Least most farthest (只指距离, 最远的) furthest(指距离:最远的, 等同于 farther, 指程度,更 深入的) oldest(指年龄,新旧:较 老的,较旧的;指血缘:长辈 的,此时等同于 elder) eldest (只指血缘: 长辈的) 最高级 longest 最长的 nicest 最好的 latest 最晚的 biggest 最大的 hottest 最热的 fattest 最胖的 thinnest 最受的 happiest 最高兴的 heaviest 最重的 easiest 最容易的 most~最困难的 most~最仔细的 most~最有趣的 most~最疲劳的

以不发音的 e 结尾, nice 好的 加-r, -st late 晚的 以一个辅音字母结尾 的重读闭音节,双写 这一辅音字母后再加 -er,-est big hot fat thin 大的 热的 胖的 瘦的

以辅音字母+ y 结尾 happy 高兴的 的词,将 y 变为 i 再 heavy 重的 加-er, -est easy 容易的 其他双音节词,多音 节词和分词形容词, 在 词 前 加 more, most 不规则变化: 原级 good; well bad; ill little much, many far difficult 困难的 careful 仔细的 interesting 有趣的 tired 疲劳的 比较级 better worse less

more farther (只指距离, 更远的) further (指距离:更远的, 等同于 farther,指程度, 更深 入的) older (指年龄,新旧:较 老的,较旧的;指血缘:长辈 的,此时等同于 elder) elder (只指血缘:长辈的)

old

10. 形容词比较等级的用法:
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⑴ 原级的常用句型结构 ①“甲+be+as+原级+as+乙”表示甲乙两者程度相同。 ②“甲+be+not+as/so+原级+as+乙”表示“甲不如乙”。 ③ “甲+be+less+ 原级+as+乙”表示“甲比乙差”。 ⑵ 比较级常用的句型结构: ① “甲+be+比较级+than+乙”表示“甲比乙…” 注意:比较级前可用 much, even, still, a bit, a little 等加强语气。 ② “甲+be+比较级+than+any other + 单数名词 (+介词短语) ”表示“甲比任何一个人、 物都…”, 含义是 “甲最….”。 ③ “甲+be+the+比较级+of+the two+复数名词”表示“甲是两者中较…的”。 ④ “比较级+ and+ 比较级”表示“越来越…” ⑤ “the+比较级,the + 比较级“表示”越…, 越…” ⑶最高级常用的句型结构: ① “主语+be+the+最高级+单数名词+ in/of 短语”表示“……是……中最……的”。 ② “主语+ be+one of the +最高级+ 复数名词+in/ of 短语”表示“……是…..中最…之一”。 ③ “特殊疑问词+be+ the + 最高级+ 甲,乙,or 丙?”用于三者之间的比较。 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 ( ) 1. Tom is ____________ Jack. A) tall as B) so tall as C) taller than D) the tallest than ( ) 2. She has a young, pretty face, but her real age is ___________. A) much old B) more old C) much older D) the oldest ( ) 3. Some young people are now ___________ to buy private cars. A) rather rich B) very rich C) rich enough D) enough rich ( ) 4.Sorry, I can’t answer your question. I know ___________ about the news. A) a little B) little C) few D) a few ( ) 5. Of all the shoes in your shop, is this pair ____________ one? A) very good B) much better C) a cheaper D) the cheapest ( ) 6. Mrs. Green gave Lucy ______________ to eat. A) delicious something B) Chinese something C) something English D) something England ( ) 7. These shoes are much too ___________ for me. A) big B) bigger C) biggest D) the biggest ( ) 8. The population problem may be ___________ one of the world today. A) the most B) most difficult C) the greatest D) more interesting ( ) 9. She is ___________ than any other girl in her class. A) thiner B) thinner C) thin D) the thinnest ( ) 10. Who is ____________ of you three ? A) the oldest B) much older C) oldest D) older ( ) 11. Can we do our work with __________ money and __________people? A) less; least B) lesser; few C) few; less D) little; less ( ) 12. Which do you think is _________, the chicken or the fish? A) good B) better C) best D) well B 组:用所给词的正确形式填空
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1. Houses in some cities now are much ______________(expensive) than before. 2. ---It’s much ___________(dry) in Yunnan this summer, isn’t it? ---yes, it is. 3. The more exercise you take, the __________(health) you’ll be. 4. It often rains in April in China. It’s the ___________(wet) month of a year. 5. There are four people in my family. I’m the _____________(young) of all. 6. It is just as ____________ today as it was yesterday. (hot) 7. The apples will get ___________ and ___________when autumn comes. (big, red) 8. I’m afraid that the old man can’t go any ______________(far). 9. Which is ____________, an elephant or a tiger? (strong) 10. That is _______________ of all. (easy) 11. Lucy plays the piano _____________________(wonderful) than Kate. 12. She cried _____________ and ______________(hard). C 组:单词改错 ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. The most boys like out-door games. A B C D ) 2. The young are always exciting about playing football. A B C D ) 3. He is an English. He speaks English very well. A B C D ) 4. All of teachers are good to us. A B C D ) 5. It is black a car. It’s a Japanese car. A B C D



副词

副词是指在句子中表示行为或状态特征的词,用以修饰动词,形容词,其他副词或全句,表示 时间,地点,程度,方式等概念。 1. 时间副词: ⑴ 表示确切时间的副词:now, today, yesterday, tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the day after tomorrow 等。 Eg. My mother went to Shanghai yesterday. ⑵ 表示不确切时间的副词: at last, at first, at once, early, immediately, late, once, one day, soon, still, suddenly, then, already, just, yet 等。 Eg. Mr. Wood called just now. I came to London five years ago and I have lived here since then. 2. 地点副词:here, there, left/ right, north/ south, upstairs/ downstairs, everywhere, above, behind, anywhere 等。 Eg. I looked everywhere for my glasses but didn’t find them. I live upstairs, and my parents downstairs. 3. 方式副词: well, hard, fast, brightly, certainly, clearly, early, easily, especially, happily, loudly, noisily, politely, quickly, safely, slowly, strongly, suddenly 等。 Eg. He put the letter carefully into the mailbox. Slowly, the old woman told us her story. 4. 频度副词:once, twice, three/ several times/ a day/ week…, daily, weekly, every day/ week/ month/ year, always, usually, often, sometimes, ever, never, again
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and again, at times, now and then, not…any more, not… any longer 等。 Eg. I usually play the piano after supper. It is never too old to learn. 活到老学到老 5. 程度副词:quite, rather, very, much, a lot, a little, a bit, enough, hardly, almost, deeply, nearly, badly, widely 等。 Eg. It is much hotter today than yesterday. I can hardly understand my foreign teacher’s classes. 6. 疑问副词:how, when, where, why 等。 Eg. Where would you like to go to college? We still don’t know when and how he will come. 形容词加-ly 变副词的规律: 许多副词都是由形容词后直接加后缀-ly 构成的。 careful---carefully, quick---quickly, safe---safely; slow---slowly 等 以-le 结尾的形容词需去掉 e 再加 y gentle---gently, possible---possibly, comfortable--- comfortably 等 以-y 结尾的形容词把 y 改为 i, 再加—ly easy---easily, 等 特例: shy 的副词形式为 shyly. 8. 与形容词同形的副词:在英语中有很多形容此和副词是同形的。 late (adj.) 已故的 (adv.)迟到 high (adj.)高的 (adv.) 高 firm (adj.) 稳固的 (adv.) 稳固地 early (adj.) 早的 (adv.) 早 hard (adj.) 硬的,难得 (adv.) 努力的 straight (adj.) 直的 (adv.) 径直 fast (adj.) 快的 (adv.) 快 long (adj.) 长的 (adv.) 长时间地 enough (adj.) 足够的 (adv.) 足够 low (adj.) 低的 (adv.) 低 9. 其他情况:有些词既是形容词又是副词,但在加-ly 之后又可以构成另外的副词,这两种形式的 副词其意义上既有区别又有联系。 hard 努力 hardly 几乎不 near 附近 nearly 几乎 high 高 highly 高度地 most 大多数 mostly 大部分地 deep 深的,深入地 deeply 深深地 wide 张大地,广阔地 widely 广泛地 late 迟到 lately 最近,近来 close 靠近 closely 密切地 10. 副词作状语时可以修饰动词,形容词,其他副词,分词和全句。 He works very hard on his subject. She speaks English very beautifully. I’m very busy these days. Luckily, she had got another chance. 11. 副词的比较级: ⑴ 规则的副词比较等级构成方法与形容词的比较级构成方法相同。 ⑵ 副词比较级的用法: ① 两者比较, 表示“甲超过乙”, 用句型“甲+ 谓语动词+ 比较级+ than+乙”。 比较级前可用 even, much, a little, a lot, a bit, still 等加强语气。 ② 表示“甲不及乙”时, 用句型“甲+谓语动词+ less+ 原级+than+ 乙”。
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7. ① ② ③

happy---happily,

heavy---heavily,

busy---busily, lucky---luckily

③ 表示“甲(不)和乙一样”,用句型“甲+ (not) 谓语动词+as/ so+原级+ as+乙”。 ⑶ 副词的最高级用于三者或三者以上的比较 12. 副词的位置 ⑴ 修饰形容词,其他副词时的位置:位于被修饰词的前面。 Computers work much faster than before. Happy days pass too soon. 注:enough 作副词时总是置于被修饰的形容词或副词之后。 The book is easy enough for little kids. enough 作形容词时,可置于名词之前。 We haven’t enough time. ⑵ 多个副词的排列顺序 ① 时间副词,地点副词: 时间副词和地点副词同时出现时,时间副词置于地点副词之前。 I have gone nowhere recently, for I have a dozen irons in the fire. ② 强调某一副词时:在强调某一动词的具体方式,状态,程度时,将需要强调的副词提到前面。 Slowly, we talked downstairs. ③ 有助动词时:说明行为频度的副词常位于行为动词之前,系动词之后;句中有助动词时,则在 其后;有多个助动词时,则置于第一个助动词之后。 Jeff is always ready to help others. I often go to school at six in the morning. I have never visited the Great Wall. 13. 副词用法辨析: ⑴ very 与 much 表示“很”,“非常” very 用于修饰形容词或副词的原级;much 用于修饰形容词或副词的比较级;修饰动词要用 much 或 very much. ⑵ so 与 such 表示“如此”,“这么”, “那么” ① so 修饰形容词或副词,such 修饰名词, 但名词前可以有形容词作定语。 so fast such a good boy ② so 修饰的形容词后可以由一个单数可数名词,其结构是“so+adj.+a/an+n.” ③ 如果可数名词复数前有 many, few,或不可数名词前有 much, little 等词,用 so 而不用 such ⑶ too,also 与 either 表示“也(不)” too 和 also 用于肯定句,too 常用于口语中,置于句末;also 常用于书面语中,置于 be 动词 后,行为动词之前;either 用于否定句。 Eg. I’m in Row 1, too. Chinese take-away food is also popular. I enjoy swimming and I like football, too. We don’t like the same colours, either. ⑷ ago 与 before 表示“在…以前” ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前”;before 指在过去或将来的某时刻“以前”,或泛指“以前”。 Eg. She saw the film three days ago. She said she had seen the film three days before. ⑸ sometime, sometimes 与 some time, some times sometime 指将来或过去的“某个时候”;sometimes 指“有时候”; some time 则指“一段时 间”; some times 指“几次;几倍” Eg. Sometimes we are busy and sometimes we are not. I sometimes have letters from him. We’ll take our holiday sometime in May. The fire went on for some time before it was brought under control.
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Our school is some times larger than theirs. ⑹ already, yet 与 still 表示“已经” already 表示某事已经发生; still 表示某事仍在进行, 主要用于肯定句; yet 用于疑问句表示“已 经”,用于否定句表示“还没有”,“尚未”。 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 ( ) 1. Don’t go out! It’s raining ___________________ A) quickly B) heavily C) loudly D) hardly ( ) 2. ---What do you think of the bridge? ---I have never seen _____________ before. A) so a long one B) so long one C) such a long one D) a such long one ( ) 3. She has _________________ A) a time B) a enough time C) enough time D) many time ( ) 4. You don’t like the same colours and I don’t like them, ___________ A) too B) also C) either D) neither ( ) 5. Li Ping is my _________ friend and does __________ in his study. A) good; good B) good; well C) well; good D) well; well ( ) 6. Can you speak a little louder? I can _________ hear you. A) hard B) really C) hardly D) clearly ( ) 7. Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A) so hardly as B) as carefully as C) carefully as D) as careful as ( ) 8. Sue is working very ___________recently. A) good B) fine C) hardly D) hard ( ) 9. They can get _____________ on time. A) school B) to there C) there D) at school ( ) 10. He likes dancing. I like, _______________ A) also B) too C) either D) very B 组:单词改错 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. She sings as good as Li Wen. A B C D ) 2. It is raining hardly. I can’t go out. A B C D ) 3. I didn’t go there last Sunday. He didn’t go, too. A B C D ) 4. Is your brother yet here? A B C D ) 5. You often must take your dog out. A B C D ) 6. May be he enjoys Chinese food very much. A B C D ) 7. She is a very good teacher. We very much love her. A B C D ) 8. He can’t sing a song at all. He sings very terribly. A B C D ) 9. I’m afraid to stay at home lonely.
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(

A B C D )10. She said she would be back sooner or late. A B C D

C 组:根据句意,用适当的形式填空 1. The children had _________(已经)been asleep when their parents got home. 2. Computers are ___________(广泛地)used in many fields. 3. They played so ___________(care) that they lost the football match. 4. My brother runs very ______________(fast) , though he is fat. 5. If you do your homework as _____________(careful) as you can, you’ll make fewer mistakes.

第四讲





动词是表示动作或状态的词。英语中,每个句子必须有一个动词来担当谓语,说明主语“是什 么”或“做什么”。动词有人称,数,时态,语态和语气的变化。 动词的种类: 实义动词 根据句法 功能分类 限定动词 主动词 (实义动词) 助动词 非限定动词 (非谓语动 不定式 V-ing 连系动词 基本助动词 情态助动词 laugh be, become, turn, get be, do, have, will can, may, must

to write, to walk, to laugh writing, walking,
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词) 根据词汇 意义分类 状态动词

v-ed 品质词 状态词 仪态词 持续性动词

written, walked, laughed be tall, have two big eyes be ill, love, think stand, lie, sit live, sit, stand, work, walk die, finish, leave, come, go, turn

动作动词

终止性动词

㈠ 实义动词:指具有完整意义,可以单独作谓语的动词,主要表示主语的动作,状态和品质。实 义动词也可与助动词相结合表示更加复杂的动词意义, 实义动词主要包括及物动词和不及物动词两 类。 1. 不及物动词:指的是后面不能跟宾语的动词。 常见的不及物动词: come 来 walk 走 stay 呆,留 stand 站 go 去 die 死 happen 发生 sit 坐 arrive 到达 run 跑 fall 掉落 rise 升起,站起 lie 躺 2. 及物动词:能跟宾语的词称为及物动词。可分为跟单宾语的及物动词,跟双宾语的及物动词, 跟复合结构的及物动词等。 ① 常见的只跟单宾语的及物动词 accept 接受 cover 覆盖 enjoy 喜欢 please 使高兴 surprise 使惊讶 love 热爱 borrow 借 excite 使激动 put 放 forget 忘记 use 运用 discover 发现 interest 使感兴趣 worry 担心 guess 猜测 Don’t forget to wake me up at six tomorrow morning. You can borrow one book at a time from the library. ② 常见的跟双宾语的及物动词 可变为加-to 形式的动词 bring 带来 pass 递 sell 卖 give 给 pay 付款 read 读 show 表现 hand 递 post 寄 return 返还 teach 教 tell 告诉 I returned him the storybook. = I returned the storybook to him. 可变为加 for 形式的动词 buy 买 choose 选择 draw 画 find 发现 keep 保持 make 使 paint 油漆 save 救护,拯救 I’ll find you another chance. = I’ll find another chance for you. 既可以变为加 to 的形式也可变为 for 形式的词 do 做 play 表演 sing 唱歌 get 得到 Eg. I’ll get you some tea. =I’ll get some to/ for you. ③ 常见的跟宾语补足语的及物动词 在英语中有些动词后跟一个宾语意义还不完整,在宾语后必须再加上一个成分(宾语补足语) , 其意义方可完整。 可跟形容词或形容词短语作宾补的动词 believe 相信 drive 驾驶 find 发现 get 使 keep 使保持 leave 留下 make 使 push 推 set 使 think 认为 consider 认为 cut 切 dye 染 declare 宣布 imagine 想象 judge 判断 We all believe him honest and kind. 可用名词短语作宾补的动词 call 叫 allow 允许 ask 要求 get 使 order 命令 tell 告诉
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expect 期望 teach 教

invite 邀请 want 想要

wish

希望

warn

警告

Mother often tells me to make friends carefully. 可跟带 to be +名词或形容词作宾补的动词 believe 认为 consider 认为 feel 感觉 find 发现 know 知道 suppose 猜测 understand 理解 prove 证明 declare 宣布 I believe what you said to be true. 可跟不带 to 的不定式作宾补的动词 have 使 make 使 let 让 see 看见 hear 听见 notice 注意 feel 感觉 watch 注意看 look at 看 listen to 听 discover 发现 What made you think of that? 可跟-ing 形式作宾补的动词 see 看见 hear 听见 have 让 watch 注意看 observe 观察 get 使 Paul doesn’t have to be made to learn. keep 使 smell 闻到 have 使 catch 抓住 look at 看 find 发现 listen to 听

Can you hear someone playing the piano next door? 可跟-ed 形式作宾补的动词 have 使 let 使 make 使 find 发现 feel 感觉 See 看见 hear 听见 think 认为 watch 注意看 I couldn’t make myself by all the listeners. 可用 as/ for 等引起的介词短语作宾补的动词 regard 看作 consider 认为 choose 选为 use 当作…用 keep 把…当作 You can keep this book as your own. 可用副词作宾语的动词 ask 叫,让 get 使 find 发现 let 让 drive 开车送 shut 关闭 see 看见 invite 邀请 order 命令 show 领 Can I ask Bob in? Show the visitor in, please. 可用介词短语作宾语的动词 Have 使 get 使 make 使 find 发现 feel 感觉 See 看见 hear 听见 discover 发现 notice 注意到 Don’t have children at home all day. Give them time to play outdoors. 3. 连系动词:连接主语和表示主语身份,性质,状态的动词。 ① 表状态的连系动词 be 是 look 看上去 seem 看上去 appear 看上去显得 smell 闻起来 sound 听起来 feel 感觉 sit 坐 stand 站 lie 躺 keep 保持 stay 保持 She is kind and honest. The park looks very beautiful. She always keeps silent whenever I see her. ② 表转变或结果的连系动词 become 变得 get 变得 grow 长得 come 成为 fall 变为 prove 证明

turn 变成/为

go 变得

After graduation, she turned nurse. Children fall asleep easily. The weather is becoming warmer and warmer as the spring is coming. 4. 持续性动词和终止性动词 ① 持续性动词:又称延续动词,表示一种可以持续行为过程或状态。
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drink 喝 eat 吃 have 有 keep 保持 know 知道 lie 躺着 live 居住 play 玩 rain 下雨 read 读 run 跑 sing 唱 sleep 睡觉 smoke 抽烟 snow 下雪 stand 站立 talk 说 wait 等 walk 走 wear 穿 work 工作 ② 终止性动词:又称非持续性动词,表示行为或过程是短暂瞬间完成的。 admit 承认 arrive 到达 begin 开始 borrow 借 buy 买 break 打破 close 关闭 come 来 die 死 fall 倒 go 走 hit 击中 join 加入 jump 跳 leave 离开 lose 丢 marry 结婚 open 打开 put 放 start 开始 stop 停止 5. 情态动词:本身有各种意义,但不能单独作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语,表示说话人 的语气或情感,这样的动词称为情态动词。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,是助动词中比较特殊的 一类。常用的情态动词:can, could, may, might, will, would, should, must, need 等。 ① can , can’t 的用法: ⑴ 表示能力或客观可能性,意思是“能”“会” ⑵ 表示请求和允许,意思是 “可以”, 同 may ⑶ Could…?表示有礼貌的请求,答应英语 can ② may 的用法: ⑴ 作“可以”讲,表示许可 ⑵ May I…? 表示请求许可,否定回答用 mustn’t, 表示“不可以”,“禁止”之意。 ⑶ 作“可能”, “或许”讲,表示推测,用于谈论可能性。 ⑷ 用在祈使句中表示祝愿:May you succeed! 祝你成功! ③ must 的用法: ⑴ must 作“必须”,“应该”解,表示必须性;mustn’t 则表示“不应该”,“不许” ⑵ “must be+ 表语”表示对现在情况的推测,作“一定”解。 ⑶ “must have +过去分词”表示“想必”之意,表示对过去事情的推测。 ④ have to 的用法: ⑴ must 表示说话人的主观看法,而 have to 则强调客观上需要做的事情。 ⑵ must 没有人称,数和时态的变化,而 have to 则有人称,数和时态的变化。 ⑶ 两者的否定式意义大不相同。must not (mustn’t) 表示“不许”,“一定不能”,“不应该”;而 do not have to 是“不必”之意。 ⑤ need 的用法: need 表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词仅用于否定句或疑问句中,在肯定句中一般用 must, have to 代替。 注意:need 常用作实义动词,有时态,人称和数的变化, 后接不定式作宾语。 6. 助动词:助动词本身没有意义,只是帮助实义动词完成某些语法功能,如表示时态,语态,构 成否定句,疑问句,简略答语等。助动词主要有 be, do, have, shall, will 等。 助动词 be have do 加强语气 句法功能 构成进行时态 构成被动语态 构成系表结构 构成完成时态 构成疑问句,否定句 典型例句 I am studying in Canada now. The glass was broken by Anna. She is nice and kind. We have known each other for years. Do you love music? I didn’t know you were coming. She does love pop music.
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替代主要动词 shall ( 第 一 人 称) will (各人称) 构成一般将来时态

She dances as well as I do. I shall leave for Canada tomorrow.

They will go on picnic next Sunday.

7. be 动词:be 作助动词和其他连系动词一样,有各种形式的变化。 形式 人称 单数 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 复数 单数 复数 单数 复数 are is are were was were being been 现在时态 am are 过去时态 was were 现在分词 过去分词

用法: ① 与现在分词构成各种进行时态 We are playing an interesting game. I was having dinner when my friend phoned me from Australia. ② 与过去分词构成被动语态 You are wanted on the phone, Miss Green. The work has already been finished. ③ be 作连系动词 She is the only one who will undertand you. They are not from the States, but from Canada. 8. have 动词:
肯定, 否定及 其缩略式

肯定式 have has had having

缩略肯定式 ‘ve ‘s ‘d

否定式 have not has not had not not having not had

缩略否定式 haven’t hasn’t hadn’t hadn’t

各种形式 原形 第三人称单数 过去式 现在分词 过去分词

had ‘d 助动词 have 与过去分词构成各种完成时态

Have you ever been to the Palace Museum? I haven’t heard from her since she left China. 9. 助动词 do:
肯定,否定, 否定式

肯定式 do does
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否定式 do not does not

缩略否定式 don’t doesn’t

各种形式 原形 现在时第三人称单数

did did not didn’t 助动词 do, does 可以构成一般现在时的否定式和疑问式,did 可以构成一般过去时的否定式和疑 问式。 过去式 I like coffee, but my parents don’t. Do you often carry a camera? 10. will, would, shall, should 助动词 will, shall 用于构成一般将来时, would, should 用于构成过去将来时,shall, should 主要用于第一人称,will, would 常用于一切人称, 其主要形式如下: 肯定式 will would shall 缩略肯定式 ‘ll ‘d ‘ll 否定式 will not would not shall not should not 缩略否定式 won’t wouldn’t shan’t shouldn’t

should ① will 用于一般将来时态的各种人称

We’ll meet at the same place we did last time. Will the new film be shown next week? ② would 用于过去将来时态的各种人称 They said it would be fine the next day. My parents phoned me that they would come soon. ③ shall 用于一般将来时态的第一人称 I shall let you know as soon as I get the news. We shan’t be coming back today. ④ should 用于过去将来时态的第一人称 We thought we should never see you again. The BBC weather report this morning said that we should have rain. 11. 英语动词的五种基本形式, 即动词原形, 第三人称单数现在式, 过去式, 过去分词和现在分词。 原形 walk like stop play 第三人称单数现在式 walks likes stops plays 过去式 walked liked stopped played 过去分词 walked liked stopped played 现在分词 walking liking stopping playing

课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 ( ( ) 1. Cars, buses and bikes _________ stop when the traffic light is red. A) can B) must C) may D) need ) 2. ---What’s wrong with you? You look so tired. ---Last night I ________ sleep well. A) couldn’t B) wouldn’t C) mustn’t D) needn’t ) 3. ---__________ we swim in that river? ---No, you _________. It’s dangerous to swim there. A) Must; can’t B) Can; may not C) Shall; don’t D) May; mustn’t ) 4. ---Must I come at four o’clock? ---Oh, no, you ____________ A) mustn’t B) don’t C) can’t D) don’t have to
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(

(

(

) 5. Can I ________ your watch? A) look B) look like C) see D) meet ( ) 6. What about ___________ football? A) go and play B) to do and play C) going and playing D) going and play ( ) 7. ---What __________ your sister do? ---She is a nurse. A) does B) is C) has D) do ( ) 8. The earth is our home. We must ______ the land, air, and water clean. A) change B) share C) notice D) find ( ) 9. On her way home Lucy saw a thief _________ in a shop. She stopped _______110 at once. A) steal; call B) to steal; call C) stealing; to call D) stealing; call ( ) 10. My mother _________ noodles, but my father ___________. A) likes; doesn’t B) don’t like; do C) likes; didn’t D) didn’t like; do B 组: 用括号内所给的词的正确形式填空 1. My father __________(read) China Daily every evening. 2. Jinan is changing fast. There ___________(be) more tall buildings next year in the west. 3. Could you please turn down the radio? I _________(talk) to the baby now. 4. Last Saturday, we _________(climb) Mount Tai to watch the sunrise. 5. You’d better __________(do) your homework by yourself. 6. I heard mother _________(talk) with father in the next room. 7. The Greens ___________(fly) to England next for half an hour. 8. I didn’t go to bed until I finished ___________(do) my work.

易混动词的辨析:
1. carry, take 与 bring 的区别: ① take 指将某物或某人从这里“带到”或“拿到”某处。 Could you take it to the classroom? ② bring 与 take 相反,是指将某物或某人从别处“带来”或“拿来” May I bring Tom to see you next Monday? ③ carry 是指随身携带(背着,扛着,提着,抱着),不表明来去的方向。 The box is heavy. Can you carry it? 2. cross 与 across 的区别: ① cross 是及物动词,表示穿过,横过 Eg. When is it safe to cross the road? ② across 是介词,表示穿过,横过 3. ① ② ③ Eg. Go across the bridge. You’ll find the museum on the left. find,look for 与 find out 的区别: find 的意思是找到, 强调结果 Eg. I can’t find the broom. look for 是寻找, 强调动作 Eg. He is looking for different places. find out 是经过调查“发现,查明真相”

Eg. Jane was angry when Lucy found out her secrets. 4. forget, leave, lose 的区别: ① forget 表示“记不起”,“忘了要带(买)”
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Eg. I forget his name. ② leave 表示“把某物忘(丢)在某地了” Eg. He left his gloves on the train. ③ lose 表示“丢了,没找到(或找不到)” Eg. I’ve lost the money. 5. hear 与 listen to 的区别: ① hear 的意思是“听见, 听到” Eg. We heard somebody knocking at the door. ② listen to 的意思是“倾听(集中注意力去听)” Eg. He was listening to the music. 6. let 与 make 的区别 make 是强制的,而 let 是非强制的。 Eg. He made her go. He let her go. 7. lend, borrow 与 keep 的区别: 三者都可以表示“借”的意思 ① borrow“借入”,向某人借某物用“borrow…from” Eg. I borrowed a bike from him. ② lend “借出”,把某物借给某人,用“lend…to” Eg. Don’t lend it to others. ③ borrow 和 lend 都是短暂性动词,要表示借多久, 用 keep Eg. ---How long can I keep this book? ---You can keep it for two weeks. 8. look, see 与 watch 的区别: ① look at 是“看”,不表示看得见或看不见 Eg. Look at the picture. ② see 是“看见” Eg. It was dark in the room. We could see nothing. ③ watch 是“观看;注视” Eg. He is watching TV. 9.lose, miss 与 fail 的区别: ① lose 表示“失去”“失掉”, 含有失去而不可复得之意。 Eg. many people lost their lives in the traffic accident. ② miss “失去”“失掉”, 指在需要时,发现或感觉不在。 Eg. When did you miss your wallet? ③ fail 意为“失败”“考试不及格” Eg. I think I fail in the exam. 10. reach, arrive 与 get to 的区别 ① reach 是继武动词,后面直接跟表示地点的名词 We reached the top of the hill at last. ② arrive 是不及物动词,后面要用介词 at 或 in 放在表示地点的宾语之前 Her mother saw her when she arrived. ③ get to 一般多用于口语中 I get to school at about 7:30 every day. 11. speak, say, talk 与 tell 的区别: ① speak 常常用来指人们对语言的掌握或使用,不强调说话的内容。 They speak English and French. ② say 一般用作及物动词,着重之说话的内容,而且后面常常带有直接或间接引语。 He says that he feels tired. ③ talk 一般用作不及物动词,着重指连续地说话或与人交谈。 I shall talk to your father about your health. talk 有时也用作名词,表示“讲话,演讲,报告” Tomorrow I want you to give us a talk, Jim. ④ tell 的意思是“告诉,讲述,吩咐” Don’t tell me, let me guess. 12. spend, cost, take 与 pay 的区别
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① 表示“花费金钱”,用 cost 和 spend. cost 指“某物值多少钱或某物花费某人多少钱”;spend 则指“某人花费多少钱购买某物” This dictionary cost me thirty yuan. My teacher spends a lot of money on books. ② 表示“花费时间”,用 cost, spend 或 take. cost 和 take 指“某事花费(某人)多少时间”; 而 spend 则指“某人花费多少时间做某事” Writing books costs/ takes a great deal of time. It took him five months to get a new company started. 句型: It takes sb. some time to do sth. It costs sb. some time/ money to do sth. She spent 3 years (in) writing this novel. ③ pay 作动词时, 意思是“付款”或“支付”, 可以有被动语态。 I’m afraid that if you’ve lost it, you must pay for it. 13.stop to do 与 stop doing 的区别: 两种结构都表示“停止”的意思,但它们的含义截然不同。 stop to do sth. 表示“停下来去做…” Eg. They stopped to talk with their teacher. stop doing sth. 表示“停止做” Eg. They stopped talking with their teacher. 14. wear 与 put on 区别: wear 是 “穿着;戴着”的意思,重点表示状态。 Eg. Lucy is wearing blue trousers and a blouse. put on 是“穿上, 戴上”的意思,强调动作。 Eg. Don’t be late, oh, and put on your old clothes. 15. wish, hope 与 expect 的区别 ① 用 wish 表示说话人不考虑是否可能实现祝愿,没有可能性的愿望也用 wish; 用 hope 则 表示说话人认为可能实现。 I wish I could become French tomorrow. I hope you can help me. ② expect 只 表示认为某事会发生或可能发生。 I expect that he’ll pass the exam.

※ 动词短语归纳
1. look look for 寻找 look after 照顾,看管 look at 看 look like 看起来像 look around 四周看 look up 查找; 抬头看

2. turn turn on 打开(电器,水龙头等) turn off 关上 3. fall fall off 从 …掉下来 4. put put away fall behind 落后 put on 穿上

turn up 开大

turn down 关小

fall over 摔跤; 跌倒在地 put…down 把…放下 put up 举起

收拾好; 放好

5. thanks thanks to 多方,由于 6. send send for 派人去请

thanks for 为…感谢 send away 开除, 除名
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send up 发射

send out 发出

7. hear hear of 听说 8. hurry hurry off 匆忙离去

hear from 受到某人的来信 hurry up 赶快

9. take take a rest 休息一会 take a walk 散步 take away 拿走 take off 脱掉, (飞机) 起飞 10. pay pay for 付钱 11. talk talk about 谈论… 12. come come back 回来 come out 出现 pay back 还债,偿还 talk with 与某人交谈 come down 下来 pay off 付清; 偿清(债务) talk over 商量 come from 来自 come in 进来

13. get get back 返回,取回 get home 到家 get into 进入… get off 下车 get on 上车 get on with 与 某人相处 get ready for 为…准备 get ready to do sth. 准备做某事 get up 起床 14. go go on with 继续 go on doing sth. 继续做某事 go to bed 睡觉 go to sleep 入睡 go shopping( for walk, to the cinema, home) 去买东西(散步, 看电影, 回家) go to school 上学 15. have have a cold 着凉; 伤风 have a good time 玩的高兴 have a match 比赛 have a rest 休息一会儿 have to 不得不 have classes 上课 have breakfast (lunch, supper) 吃早饭(午饭, 晚饭) 16. wait wait on 服侍(某人) wait for 等待(某人) write to 给…写信 help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事 have a look at 看一看 have a talk 谈话

17. write write down 写下;记下

18. help help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事 19. want want to do sth. 想做某事 20. agree agree with sb. 同意某人的意见 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 (情态动词) ( ( ( (

want sb. to do sth. 想要某人做某事 agree to sth. 同意某事

) 1. Cars, buses and bikes ____________ top when the traffic light is red. A) can B) must C) may D) need ) 2. ---___________ I borrow your MP3? ---Sure, here you are. A) May B) Should C) Must D) Would ) 3. ---It’s raining heavily now. You’d better __________ home. A) leave B) not leave C) to leave D) not to leave ) 4. ---Must we clean the classroom now? ---No, you __________
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A) mustn’t B) needn’t C) aren’t D) can’t ( ) 5. We’ll go for a picnic if it ___________ this Friday. A) won’t rain B) isn’t raining C) doesn’t rain D) don’t ( ) 6.To make our hometown more beautiful, you ________ throw rubbish into the river. A) needn’t B) mustn’t C) must D) may ( ) 7. ---Must I go with them tomorrow? ---No, you ___________. A) mustn’t B) shouldn’t C) needn’t D) can’t ( ) 8. I ________________ it again. A) would like you to read B) would like that you read C) would like you reading D) would like you read ( ) 9. You had better ____________ late next time. A) not be B) not to be C) being not D) to be not ( ) 10. I can’t do it, so I ________ your help. A) need B) will need C) needn’t D) don’t need B 组:选择最佳答案 ( ) 1. ---How do you like Hangzhou, Miss Read? ---Sorry, I _________ there. A) have gone B) have been C) haven’t gone D) haven’t been ( ) 2. Where ________ Uncle Wang yesterday? A) was B) were C) did D) does ( ) 3. They _________ Miss Brown at the airport when she arrives this afternoon. A) will meet B) have met C) meet D) met ( ) 4. ---Who’s in the office? ----Mr. Smith is. He ___________ a report. A) is writing B) wrote C) would write D) writes ( ) 5. ---How is your father? I _________ him for a long time. A) don’t see B) hadn’t see C) didn’t see D) haven’t seen ( ) 6. Please try to _________ here on time. Don’t keep us waiting for a long time. A) get to B) arrive in C) arrive at D) get ( ) 7. ---When I got back, I _________ a note on my desk. A) find B) look for C) found D) founded ( ) 8. I think the shop is __________ at this time of day. A) opened B) open C) to open D) opens ( ) 9. Ann ___________ worried about her birthday party that day. A) were B) was C) will be D) is ( ) 10. Mrs. Green hasn’t got any money with her. She ________ her bag in her room. A) stayed B) forgot C) left D) took C 组:单词辨析: 选择恰当的词填空 1. 用 cross 或 across 填空 ① ② ③ ④ 2. It took them three days to ___________ the country. There are two bridges ___________ the river. She went _________ the street to do some shopping. She will sit on the chair and ___________ her legs. 用 borrow 或 lend 填空

① I ________ this dictionary from our school library last Monday. ② Who ________ you this dress yesterday?
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③ Please __________ me ten dollars. ④ My brother never __________ anything from her but she often _______ things from him. 3. 用 bring, take 或 carry 的适当形式填空 ① ② ③ ④ 4. ① ② ③ ④ 5. The woman is ___________ a baby in her arms. This box is too heavy. I can’t _________ it for you. Can anyone ___________ me a knife? This is very useful to me. May I ___________ it away? 用 say, speak, tell, talk 的适当形式填空 The teacher __________, “Don’t draw on the wall.” The baby can’t __________ yet. Tom is ___________ with Jack in class. My granny often _________ me stories in the evening. 用 get, arrive, reach 的适当形式填空

① They _________ in Changchun yesterday morning. ② He ____________ Shanghai last month. ③ When did you ___________ to Wuhan? ④ They _________ at the village at four yesterday. 6. 用 spend, take, cost, pay 的适当形式填空 ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ 7. She ___________ a lot of money on the car. It ___________ me ten minutes to go to the zoo yesterday. The book _________ him one yuan. It __________ me two hours to finish my homework every day. Mike lost the book, he had to __________ for it. 用 put on, wear, in, dress 的适当形式填空

① my daughter is old enough to __________ herself. ② It’s cold today. You’d better __________ more clothes. ③ Wang Lin often _____ _____ a skirt in summer. ④ The girl _________ red is a good student. 8. 用 listen (to), hear 填空 ① ② ③ ④ 9. ① ② ③ ④ We often __________ the weather report. I’m sorry to _________ the bad news. Mary is ____________ music. Yesterday Li Ming ________ from his friend. 用 look(at), see, watch, read 的适当形式填空 What can you _________ in the picture? We _________ a football match last week. My father often _________ newspaper in the evening. ___________ the blackboard, please!

Do you love life? Then do not squander time; for that ’s the stuff life is made of.
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你热爱生命吗? 那么,别浪费时间, 因为声明是由时间组成的。 Each moment in history is a fleeting time, precious and unique. 历史巨轮飞转,分分秒秒的时间都十分宝贵,也独具意义。

第五讲

介词

一 介词:用来表明名词,代词(或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句)与句中他其词的关系的 词。 1. 介词的常见搭配: ⑴ “动词+介词”的搭配 agree with/ to 同意 arrive in/ at 到达 begin with 从…开始 break into 闯入 fall behind 落后于 get to 到达 go over 复习 hear from 收到…的信 hear of 听说 join in 参加(比赛,活动等) knock at 敲(门) laugh at 嘲笑 lead to 通往,导致 listen to 听 look after 照顾 look at 看 look for 寻找 look into 调查 look like 看起来像 look over 检查 move in/ into 迁入 move to 搬到 pay for 付款 put on 穿上 prefer…to… 更喜欢 point to 指向 send for 派人去请 shout at/ to 对…喊叫 talk with 与…交谈 talk about 谈论 talk of 谈起 think about 考虑 think of 想起 ⑵ “动词+名词+介词”的搭配 make fun of 嘲笑;取笑 make sure of 查明,弄清楚 make use of 利用 say hello to 向…问候 take care of 照顾 take part in 参加 ⑶ “be+形容词/过去分词+ 介词”的搭配 be afraid of 害怕 be angry about 因…生气 be angry with 生某人的气 be bad at 不擅长 be bad for 有害于 be busy with 忙于 be careful/ careless about 重视,讲究/不关心 be careful/ careless of 注意,珍重/ 不在乎 be clever at 精于 be different from 与…不同 be different in 在…方面不同 be famous for 以…著名 be far from 远离 be fond of 喜爱 be full of 充满 be good at 擅长 be good for 对…有益 be good to 对…好 be happy about 对…感到高兴 be hungry for 渴望 be interested in 对…感兴趣 be known as 以…而闻名 be known for 因…而闻名 be late for 迟到 be pleased with 对…满意 be polite to 对…有礼貌 be popular with 受到…的喜爱 be prepared for 为…做准备 be ready for 作好…的准备 be rich in 盛产 be short of 缺少 be tried of 对…厌烦 be worried about 为…而担忧 be worthy of 值得…的 ⑷ “介词+名词”的搭配 in time 及时 in a hurry 匆忙 in fact 事实上 in life 一生中 in trouble 处于困难中 in danger 处于危险中 in hospital 住院 in the end 最后 at once 立刻 at home 在家 at the same time 与此 同时 at last 最后 at the age of 在…年龄 on show 展览 on duty 值日 on foot 步行 on the left 在左边 on the radio 通过广播 on one’s way … 去…的路上 by the way 顺便说 by the end of 在末尾
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by bus 乘公共汽车 by air/ plane 乘飞机 by sea/ ship 乘船 2. 重点介词的用法: ⑴ at 的用法: ① 用于时刻前: at noon/ night at sunrise ② 用于点钟前: at one o’clock at a quarter past two ③ 用于固定搭配中: at Christmas at the party ⑵ in 的用法: ① 用于某个较长的时间,如:事迹,年,季节,月份等。 in the twenty-first century 在 21 世纪 at one’s thirties 在某人 30 多岁时 in 2005 在 2005 年 in autumn 在秋天 in March 在三月份 ② 用于泛指一天的上午,下午,晚上等。 in the morning/ afternoon/ evening ③ 用于表示“从现在起,多长时间后活多久以后”的短语 They will finish the work in an hour. ⑶ on 的用法: ① 用于星期,日期(包括该天的各个部分) on Sundays/ weekdays, on Saturday morning/ afternoon/ evening ② 用于 morning, afternoon, evening, night, day 前,指具体的某天,或当上述名词起前由描 绘性修饰语时: on September 1, on a cold morning, on the night of October 1 on the first day, on his birthday, on Sunday morning ③ 用于公共节假日前, on Teachers’ Day on Christmas Day, on National Day 注意:at, on 都可用来表示节假日,但 at 侧重指“休假的节日”, 而不是指具体的哪一天;on 则 侧重指具体的时日,与它连用的短语中多含“Day” ⑷ to 的用法 ① 表示“到”,“向”,“往” We walk to town. ② 表示接受者,意为“给” I gave the book to Mary. ③ 表示几点差几分 It’s ten minutes to six. ④ 表示“直到” She read the book from the beginning to the end. ⑤ 表示引起某种情绪的原因 To his surprise, he found nobody there. ⑥ 表示相对的位置 Japan is to the east of China. ⑸ by 的用法: ① 表示“乘”“用”某种交通工具 He often goes to work by bus. ② 表示动作的执行者,意为“被”“由” The window was repaired by him. ③ 表示时间。“到…为止”,通常用于过去完成时。 By the end of last term, we had learned three thousand English words. ⑹ with 的用法: ① 表示并列关系,意为“和”,“和…一起” Can you come to play football with us? ② 表示“带有”“具有” China is a large country with a long history. I like tea with nothing in it. ③ 表示使用的工具,手段,意为“用” He is writing with a pen. ④ 表示行为的对象,意为“对着”,“就…来说” Our English teacher is always strict with us. ⑤ 表示原因,意为“由于”“因为” They were trembling with fear. 他们害怕得直发抖。 ⑥ 表示随身携带
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It looks like rain, You’d better take a raincoat with you. ⑺ without 的用法: ① without 用以表示“没有”,“没有带(吃, 穿,戴等)” There is no rose without a thorn. 没有不带刺的玫瑰花。 ② without 用以表示“不(做)…没有(做)…” She spoke without thinking. ③ without 用以表示“(条件)若无…,假如没有…” Without water we can’t live. 3. 表示处所方位的介词: 1. at/ in/ on 表示“在…” in 表示“在…内”,用于内部; on 意为“在…上面”, 用于表面接触 表示在某地时,at 后接小地方,in 后接大地方 2. between/ among 表示“在…之间” between 表示在两者之间 among 表示在三者或者三者以上之间 3. in/ to/ on 表示“位于” in 表示在某范围之内; to 表示在某范围之外; on 表示“毗邻”,“接壤” 4. above/ over/ on 表示“在…上面” above 的意思是“在…至上”“高于…”表示相对高度,不一定在正上方 over 的意思是“在…之上”表示在垂直的上方 on 的意思是“在…上面”,表示与表面接触 5. in/ into 表示“进入…内” in 表示“在…之内”, 表示位置或处所,侧重状态;into 意为“进入…里”,表示运动或变化,侧重 动作。 6. on/ onto 表示“在/到…上” on 意为“在…上”,表示位置,侧重状态; onto 意为“到…上”,表示位置的改变 4. 其他常用介词: 1. about 意为“关于”,表示内容 2. on 作“关于”将,表示论题 a book on radio 一本关于无线电的书 3. like 作“像…”解,表示相似 4. in 表示“穿着”“戴着”或“用某种语言/材料”等 5. as “作为”,表示身份 6. for 表示目的,原因 课堂练习: A 组:选择最佳答案 ( ( ( ) 1. ---When will Mr. Black come to Beijing? ---____________ September 5. A) On B) To C) At D) In ) 2. The twins were born __________ a Friday evening. A) in B) at C) on D) of ) 3. ---What did Mary have _________ breakfast this morning? ---She was late for school and hurried off _________ breakfast. A) for; without B) at; without C) for; after D) at; after ) 4. Can you tell me the story __________ Japanese? A) with B) in C) by D) at ) 5. It’s the best time to plant trees __________ spring. A) on B) in C) at D) / ) 6. Go ________ this road and take the second turning on the left.
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( ( (

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

(

The bookshop is on your right. A) through B) past C) across D) pass ) 7. Suddenly, all the dogs ran _________ the house. A) in B) into C) on D) at ) 8. ________ the help of the teachers, he found out his mistakes. A) Under B) With C) At D) On ) 9. His father left Najing __________ Beijing last night. A) to B) for C) from D) towards ) 10. My uncle lives _________ 108 Beijing street. A) at B) on C) to D) in ) 11. It is very kind _________ you to show me the way. A) of B) to C) for D) with ) 12. Our teacher is very strict ___________ us. A) in B) with C) on D) of ) 13. It is impossible for me to work out this difficult problem ________ your help. A) with B) without C) no D) about ) 14. The word “Monday” begins ___________ the letter “M”. A) at B) from C) with D) / ) 15. Could you take the box _________ the classroom? A) in B) at C) for D) to ) 16. We go to school _________ Monday ________ Friday. A) from; to B) on; to C) from; on D) on; on ) 17. They tried to run away, but we caught them ____________ A) at the end of B) by the end of C) in the end D) in the end of ) 18. ---What time is it now? ---It’s _________ seven thirty. A) about B) at C) on D) in

B 组:短文改错 This is the twins’ bedroom. You can see a small table among the bed And the wardrobe. The lamp is up the table. Where’s the bed? It’s under the table. They have a lot toys. They are on a shelf. The shelf is on the top bed. Two windows are on the wall. A yellow door is in the wall, too. There is a beautiful picture in the wall. They like their bedroom very much. 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. _____________________ 4 _____________________ 5. _____________________ 6. ______________________ 7. _______________________ 8. ________________________ 9. ______________________ 10. ________________________

第六讲

一般现在时与现在进行时
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㈠ 一般现在时:指的是描述现在或经常性的性质,动作或状态。
1. 基本用法:1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。 时间状语:every…, at…, on Sunday,always, often, usually, sometimes, every day, seldom, every day, once a week, on/ at/ over weekends 等时间状语连用。 We go to school by bus every day. / He often swims in the river. I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实以及自然现象。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. 3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 She likes basketball games. 她喜欢篮球运动。 He speaks English well. 他英语讲 的好。 5) 表示现在的状态。 My name is Michael. I am twelve. I am a student. I am in Class 4, Grade 7. 6) 用于时间,条件,方式,让步状语从句中,表示将要发生的动作 If you speak slowly, I understand; if you speak fast, I don’t. If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go on a picnic as planned. 2. 构成: 肯定句 (1)主语+ am / is / are +表语 They are new students. 他们是新生。 I am tall. 我个子高。 He is from Japan. 他来自日本。 am is are 用法歌诀: I 用 am ,you 用 are ,is 连着他、她、它;单数用 is , 复数一律都用 are。 (2)a. 主语+ 实义动词+ 其它 b. 单三人称主语+实义动词单三人称+其它 Eg. I read English every morning. 我天天早晨读英语。 He usually goes to school by bike. 他通常骑自行车去上学。 Maria often does her homework after school. 玛利亚经常放学后做作业。 Jane’s mother works in a hospital. 简的妈妈在医院工作。 (用法歌诀: I 、you、 we 、they 动词用原形;he 、she、 it 动词用单三人称) 否定句 (1)主语 +am / is / are + not +表语 Eg. She is not a nurse. 她不是护士。 We are not in the same class, but we are in the same grade. (2)① 主语 +don’t +动词原形 +其它 ② 单三人称主语+doesn’t +动词原形+其它 Eg. I don’t play soccer after school. / school. 一般疑问句 (1)Am / Is / Are +主语 +表语 ? He doesn’t go to the park after

Is your mother a teacher? Are you from China ? (2)① Do + 主语 +动词原形 +其它 ? ②Does +单三人称主语+动词原形+其它 ? Do you speak English? 你说英语吗?
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Does your brother have a wide mouth ? 你弟弟有一个大嘴巴吗? (do does 用法歌诀: do、does 构成疑问句、否定句,I、 you 、we 、they 用 do , he、 she 、it 用 does ,动词一律用原形。 ) 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词 + 一般疑问句 ? Where are you from ? / How old is she ? / What do you do every day? / What time does your mother get up every day? / How often does Maria go to the library ? 随堂练习: A 组:用适当的形式填空。 1、I ________ (want) to play ball. 2、He ________ (go) to school every day. 3、Lily _______ (like) to go to the zoo. 4、My parents sometimes __________ (tell) me a story. 5、She always _________ (get) up late. 6、Winter ________ (come) after summer. 7、Jack usually ________ (do) his homework at home. 8. I usually _________ (go) to school at 7 o’clock. 9. Elephants _______ (like) to eat peanuts. 10. I usually ___________ (go) to school at 7 o’clock. B 组:给出下列单词的第三人称单数形式。 help_______ listen________ climb________ tell________ study________ try________ show________ go________ cry________ stay________ do________ push________ buy________ finish________ ride________ fly________ draw________ guess________ dry________ make________ kiss________ say________ C 组:单项选择: ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 1.The students will go to the Summer Palace if it _____ tomorrow. A. don’t rain B. doesn’t rain C. won’t rain )2. The picture _______ nice. A. looks B. is looked C. look D. is looking )3 .Japan ______to the east of China . A .lie B .lies C .is lies D .is lying ) 4. Does Jim _________sisters? A. have any B. have some C. has any D. has some )5. Mother often ______ me to work hard at maths. A. says B. talks C. speaks D. tells ) 6.----Is Peter from America? -----__________.He is an Englishman. A. Yes, he is B. Yes, he does C. No, he isn’t D. No, he doesn’t ) 7. My friend ______his homework at weekends. A. isn’t B. isn’t doing C. doesn’t do D. don’t do ) 8.Could he _______some green tea? A. has B. eats C. to drink
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( (

D .have

(

) 9.----Does Bob _________working ? ----No ,I don’t think _________. A. like ;it B. love ;so C. likes ;this D. likes ;that ) 10.-----Where _________your friends _______from ? -----Japan . A. do ;come B. are ;come C. does ;come D.Is ;come

(

㈡ 现在进行时
1. 基本用法: 1)现在进行时态表示现在(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生 的动作。 The students are listening to the teacher. 学生们正在听老师讲。 He is watching TV now. 他正在看电视。 2)习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。 (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。 ) 3)表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等。 The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。 It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。 4) 与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往 带有说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。 2. 现在进行时构成是: be(am/is/are)+动词-ing 形式 肯定式: 主语+be(am/is/are)+动词-ing 形式+其他 Father is reading in the study while Mother is cooking. We are cleaning our classroom.. 否定式:主语+be(am/is/are)+not+动词-ing 形式+其他. He is not sleeping. He is reading on bed. Alice is not making a cake for herself. 一般疑问句式结构: Be (am/is/are)+主语+动词-ing 形式+其他? Are they reading or writing? Is he washing in the bathroom? 特殊疑问句式结构:特殊疑问词+be(am/is/are)+主语+动词-ing+其他? What are you doing there? Whom are you talking about? 3. 动词现在分词构成: 正常变化是在动词原形后加 ing read----reading ; drink---drinking ; jump---jumping ; wear---wearing ; 特殊变化: 1) 以 e 结尾的动词,去掉 e 再加 ing 如: eat---eating ; listen--- listening grow---growing ; collect---collecting

write ---writing ; make--- making ; ride---riding ; take---taking 2).重读闭音节( 只有一个元音字母,而其后跟有一个辅音字母时)要双写结尾的辅音字母再加 i ng sit---sitting ; swim---swimming ; 3)以 ie 结尾的,把 ie 变成 y 再加 ing put--- putting ; run--- running

die---dying; lie---lying; tie---tying 4. 现在进行时标志性时间状语: now, look, listen,It’s …o’clock 等
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5. 不用于现在进行时的动词: love 爱 like 喜欢 know 知道 understand 明白 forget 忘记 remember 记得 believe 相信 think 认为 want 想要 mind 介意 wish 但愿 need 需要 agree 同意 hate 恨 see 看见 have/has 有 own 拥有 seem 似乎 belong to 属于 hear 听见 feel 摸上去 sound 听起来 taste 尝起来 notice 注意到 accept 接受 decide 决定 give 给与 receive 接受 随堂练习: A 组:用括号中动词的适当形式填空: 1. My parents ______________(watch)TV now. 2. Look.! Three boys _____________(run). 3. What _______ your mother _______(do) now? 4. _______ your dog _______ now?(sleep) 5. _______ you _______(listen) to music? Yes, I am. 6. Look, Miss Chen _______ football.(play) 7. Tom and his sister _______(wait)for you over there. 8. Now Class 3 and Class 4_______(have)a test. 9. Listen, someone _______(sing)in the classroom. 10. ——Where is Zhang Yan? ——She ___________(talk)with her teacher in the teacher’s office. B 组:将下列句子改成现在进行时 1. Tom can speak Chinese. 2. We have four lessons. 3. I watch TV every day. 4. She works in a hospital. 5. Do you like this book? 6. Kitty and Ben have lunch at about twelve. 7. His father can help them. 8. Danny, open the door. 9. They watch TV in the evening. 10.What do you do? C 组:按要求改写句子

1.She is closing the door now.(改成否定句) ______________________
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2.You are doing your homework.(用"I"作主语改写句子) ______________________ 3.they,the tree,sing,now,under.(用现在进行时连词成句.) _____________________ 4.The Young Pioneers are helping the old woman.(改成一般疑问句) _________________ 5. Look! Lily is dancing.(改为一般疑问句) _____________________________________ 6. Kate is looking for her watch.(改为否定句) _____________________________________
7. Mrs. White is watching TV.(划线部分提问) ______________________________________ 8. I am doing homework.(改为否定句) ______________________________________ 9. They are waiting for you at the library.(就划线部分提问) _____________________________________ 10. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句) _________________________________________________________________ ___________

综合练习
用所给词的适当形式填空,完成句子。 1.Look !The boys _______________(swim )in the river now . 2.----What ___________the man _____________(do )now ? ----He ____________(mend)his bike . 3.Jim’s sister _______________(wear)a new skirt today . 4.Listen ,Some of the girls _____________(talk)about Harry Potter . 5.Emily is _____________(pick)up a pen on the road . 6.Mike ,go and see who _______________(play)volleyball on the playground . 7.Lisa’s brother is _____________(live )in England ,but he is not ___________(stay)there long . 8.The boys are _____________(sing)karaoke .They ____________(not play)computer games . 9.It _______________(rain )now .The sun ________________(not shine ) 10.______________you ________________(sit )in the reading room at present . 11.Mike _________________(stay)at home on Sundays . 12.My sister ________________(not like )eggs at all . 13.Wang Fang often ________________(do)her homework in the evening . 14.Li Lei often __________________(carry )water for the old woman . 15.My brother ________________(watch )TV every evening . 16.---__________________(be )you from the USA ? ----Yes ,I __________________. 17._____________you _____________(get )to school 7:30every day ? 18.Canadians _______________(speak )English and French . 19.______________(give )the little boy some bread and a cup of milk ,please . 20.We _______________(begin )class at seven thirty in the morning .
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选择: ( ( ( ( ( ) 1.The child _______on the chair and eating a cake . A. siting B .sitting C. is siting D .is sitting ) 2.Are all the twins ______the same clothes? A.put on B. putting on C. wear D. wearing ) 3.I don’t think that it’s true. He’s always ______strange stories. A. tell B. telling C. told D. tells ) 4.Miss Li_______a new book these days. A. write B. writing C. is writing D .is writing ) 5.----What are you doing now? -----I______my homework. A. am doing B. do C. did ) 6.-----_____you doing some reading? D. doing

(

( ( ( (

-----Yes,I am. A. Is B. Are C. Am D) Do ) 7.Simon________at some football cards now . A. is looking B. looks C. is watching D. is drawing ) 8.Does Jim _________sisters? A. have any B. have some C. has any D. has some ) 9.Mother often______me to work hard at maths. A. says B .talks C. speaks D. tells ) 10..----What are you __________about. -----The coming sports meeting. A. speaking B. talking C. telling D. saying ) 11.Look ,Li Lei ______Jim with his Chinese . A . is helping B .has helped C .is going to help D .would help ) 12.Stay here ,boy .Don’t go out .It ________now . A. will rain B .is going to rain C .has rained D. is raining ) 13.The students of Class 3_______a football game now .Let’s go and watch it . A. are having B .will have C .is having D .will be had ) 14.Miss Gao _________,she’s working . A .isn’t sleeping B .doesn’t sleeping C .is sleeping D .sleeps

( ( ( (

第七讲

一般将来时与一般过去时

(一)一般将来时:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。
表示一般将来时的语法形式有四种:shall/will+动词原形;be going to+动词原形;现在进行时 和一般现在时。 1. shall/will+动词原形 1) will 可用于所有人称,但 shall 仅表示单纯将来时,用于第一人称 I 和 we,作为 will 的一种替 代形式。以 You and I 为主语时通常不用 shall. He will be back soon. 他很快就会回来。 I shall/will be free on Sunday. 星期天我有空。
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You and I will work in the same factory. 你和我将在同一工厂工作。 2)will,shall 可用来预言将来发生的事。如说出我们设想会发生的事,或者请对方预言将要发生 什么事。 It will rain tomorrow. 明天将要下雨。 3)will,shall 除可表示单纯的将来时以外,还可以带有意愿的色彩,仍指的是将来。 I'll buy you a bicycle for your birthday. 你过生日时,我给你买一辆自行车。(表示允诺) Will you open the door for me please?请你帮我开门好吗?(表示请求) Shall I get your coat for you? 我可以为你拿外套吗?(表示提议) 2. be going to+动词原形 1) 表示说话人根据现在已有的迹象,判断将要或即将发生某种情况。这类句子的主语可以是人, 也可是物。 There is going to be a football match in our school tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午 我们学校将有一场足球赛。(已有告示) I feel terrible. I think I'm going to die. 我感到难受极了,我想我快不行了。 Look at those black clouds!It's going to rain. 看看那些乌云!天快要下雨了。 2) 表示主语现在的意图或现已作出的决定,即打算在最近或将来进行某事。这种意图或决定往往 是事先经过考虑的。 He isn't going to see his elder brother tomorrow. 他明天不准备去看他哥哥。 Mary is going to be a teacher when she grows up. 玛丽决定长大了当一名教师。 3) 只是单纯地预测未来的事,此时可与 will 互换。例如: I think it is going to/will rain this evening. 我认为今晚要下雨。 注意:(1)be going to 和 will 在含义和用法上略有不同。be going to 往往表示事先经过考虑 的打算;will 多表示意愿、决心。两者有时不能互换。 He is studying hard and is going to try for the exams. 他正努力学习,准备参加考 试。(不能用 will 替换) —Can somebody help me? ——谁能帮我一下吗? —I will. ——我来。(不能用 be going to 替换)\ (2)在 if 之后,通常不用 will 表示预言,但可以用 be going to 表示意图。例如: If you are going to go to the cinema this evening,you'd better take your coat with you. 你若今晚去看电影,最好带着外套。 be going to 也常可以用于主句之中。例如: If you invite Jack,there's going to be trouble. 如果你邀请杰克,那就要惹麻烦了。 如果表示将来的意愿,will 可用于条件从句。此时 will 为情态动词。 If you will learn to play football,I'll help you. 如果你想学踢足球,我可以帮你。 对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。 1. 问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.
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2. 问干什么。What … do. My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon. 3. 问什么时候。When. 例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed? 随堂练习: A 组:选择 ( ( ( ) 1.Mother ________ me a nice present on my next birthday. A) will gives B) will give C) gives D)give ) 2. He ________ her a beautiful hat on her next birthday. A) gives B) gave C) will give D) is going giving ) 3. He ________ in three days. A) coming back B) came back C) will come back D) is going to coming back ) 4. Who ________ ________ swimming with us tomorrow afternoon? A) will; go B) do; go C) will; going D) shall; goes ) 5. The day after tomorrow they ________ a volleyball match. A) will watch B) watches C) is watching D) to watch )6. They ________ an English evening next Sunday. A) are having B) are going to have C)will having D) is going to have )7. ________ you ________ free next Sunday? A) Will; are B) Will; be C) Do; be D) Are; be )8. He ________ there at ten tomorrow morning. A) will B) is C) will be D) be )9. I ____ _____ a teacher in the future. A) will, be B) is, be C) is, being D) will, is ) 10.They ____ _____ to the park next Sunday. A) will goes B) will go C) is going D) will go ) 11. My family ____ _____ to church next weekend. A) will go B) goes C) will going D) is going

( ( (

( ( ( ( (

B 组:改写句子 1. Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定) Nancy ________ going to go camping. 2. I’ll go and join them.(改否定) I _______ go ______ join them. 3. I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句) ________ _______ ________ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow? 4. We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句) _______ ________ meet at the bus stop at 10:30? 5. She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问) ________ _______ she ________ ________ _________ after school?
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6. My father and mother are going to see a play the day after tomorrow.(同上) _________ _________ going to _________the day after tomorrow?

㈡ 一般过去时:表示过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在的状态, 谓语动词要用过去式。
经常与 yesterday(昨天), last week(上周), last month(上个月), last year(去年), two months ago(两个月前), the day before yesterday(前天) ,in 1990 (在 1990 年), in those days (在那些日子里)等表示过去的时间状语连用。 eg. I was born in 1990. (我出生在 1990 年)。 When did you go to the park? (你是什么时候去的公园) 。 I went to the park last week. (我是上周去的公园) 1.be 动词的一般过去时态 在没有实义动词的句子中使用 be 动词, am is 的过去式为 was; are 的过去式为 were. 构成: 肯定句: 主语+was (were) +宾语 I was late yesterday. (昨天我迟到了。 ) 否定句: 主语+was (were) +not+宾语 We weren't late yesterday. (我们昨天没迟到) 疑问句: Was (Were) +主语+宾语 Were you ill yesterday? (你昨天病了吗?) 肯定回答: Yes, I was. (是的,我病了。) 否定句: No, I wasn't. (不,我没病。) 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+was (were) +主语+宾语 When were you born? 你是什么时候出生的? 2. 实义动词的一般过去时态 肯定句要使用动词的过去式,否定句和疑问句要使用助动词 do 和 does 的过去式 did. 肯定句: 主语+动词过去式+宾语 I went home at nine o'clock yesterday.(我昨天九点钟回的家。 ) 否定句:主语+didn't +动词原形+宾语 I didn't go home yesterday. (我昨天没回家。) 疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+宾语 Did you go home yesterday? (你昨天回家了吗?) 肯定回答: Yes, I did. (是的,我回了。) 否定回答:No, I didn't. (不,我没回家。) 3. 助动词和情态动词过去式如下: shall―should(将要)用于第一人称单数 will―would(将要)用于所有人称 can ---could(能,会) may―might(可以) must―must (必须) have to―had to(不得不) 助动词和情态动词的过去时态要使用他们的过去式,后面的动词还使用原形。 I had to do my homework yesterday. (昨天我不得不做作业。) 4. 一般过去时态由动词的过去式表示。大多数动词的过去式是在动词原形后加上 ed 构成。这类 动词称为规则动词。 1) 一般情况下在词尾直接加 ed。 如:play―played work―worked 2) 以 e 结尾的动词只加 d. 如:like--- liked love―loved 3) 以辅音字母+Y 结尾的动词,变 Y 为 I,再加 ed. 如:study―studied carry―carried 4) 以重读闭音节结尾的动词,如果末尾只有一个辅音字母,要双写最后这个辅音字母,
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再加 ed. 如:stop―stopped 5. --ed 的读音规则如下: 1) 在清辅音后面读[t]. work―worked ; help―helped 2) 在浊辅音或元音后读[d]. learn―learned 3) 在[t] 和[d] 后读[id]. support―supported 6. 不以 ed 结尾的过去式,称为不规则动词。需要大家背不规则动词表。 一般过去时态的“三变”技巧 一变:肯定句变为否定句 【技巧 1】当句中含有情态动词或助动词 could,would,should 等时,可直接在其后面加 not 构成否定句。
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I could get you a concert ticket. → I could not / couldn't get you a concert ticket. 【技巧 2】当句中含有系动词 was,were 时,可直接在其后加 not 构成否定句。

I was on the Internet when you called me. → I was not / wasn't on the Internet when you called me. 【技巧 3】当句中谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词 was, were 以外的动词时,在该动词之前 加 did not / didn't,动词还原,构成否定句。
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The famous singer sang some Chinese songs. → The famous singer did not / didn't sing any Chinese songs. 二变:陈述句变为一般疑问句 【技巧 1】移动词语的位置。将 was,were, could,would,should 等移到句首。例如:
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He could pack his things himself. → Could he pack his things himself? 【技巧 2】添加助动词 did。谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词 was, were 以外的动词时,在 主语之前加 did,动词还原。例如: Mr Li looked very old. → Did Mr Li look very old? 三变:陈述句变为特殊疑问句 【技巧 1】确定疑问词:人 who / whom,物 what,地点 where,时间 when / what time, 原因 why,频率 how often,长度 how long,距离 how far 等等。例如: They gave the concert last night. → When did they give the concert? 【技巧 2】辨认结构形式:疑问词+情态动词/助动词/ was / were / did +主语+...? 例如: The accident happened near the station. → Where did the accident happen? 随堂练习: A 组: 请用正确动词形式填空。 1. I _________ (have) an exciting party last weekend. 2. _________ she _________(practice) her guitar yesterday? No, she _________. 3. What ________ Tom ________ (do) on Saturday evening? He ________(watch) TV and __________(read) an interesting book. 4. They all _________(go) to the mountains yesterday morning. 5. She _________(not visit) her aunt last weekend. She ________ (stay) at home and _________(do) some cleaning. 6. When ________ you _________(write) this song? I __________(write) it last year. 7. My friend, Carol, ________(study) for the math test and ________(practice) English last night. 8. ________ Mr. Li __________(do) the project on Monday morning? Yes, he _________. 9. How _________(be) Jim's weekend? It _________(be not) bad.
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10. ________ (be) your mother a sales assistant last year? No. she __________. B 组: 改错题 1.How is Jane yesterday? _____________________ 2.He go to school by bus last week. ____________________________ 3.He often goes home at 6:00 last month. ____________________________ 4.I can fly kites seven years ago. ______________________________ 5.Did you saw him just now. ____________________________________ 6.Tom wasn’t watch TV last night. ____________________________________ 7.I didn’t my homework yesterday. ____________________________________ 8.He wait for you three hours ago. ____________________________________ 9.Who find it just now ? ________________________________________ C 组: 按要求变换句型。 1. Father bought me a new bike. (同义句) Father bought _______ _______ ________ ________ me. 2. Frank read an interesting book about history. (一般疑问句) _______ Frank _______ an interesting book about history? 3. He’s cleaning his rooms. (划线提问)________ he _______? 4. Why not go out for a walk? (同义句) _______ ________ ________ out for a walk? 5. Thomas spent RMB 10 on this book. (否定句) 6. My family went to the beach last week. (划线提问) ________ ________ ________ family _______ last week? 7. I didn’t have any friends. (一般疑问句) ________ _______ have _______ friends? 8. I think she is Lily’s sister. (否定句)____________________ 9. Sally often does some reading in the morning. (否定句) Sally _______ often ______ some reading in the morning. 10. Lucy did her homework at home.(改否定句) Lucy ___________ ___________ her homework at home

第八讲

现在完成时与感叹句

㈠ 现在完成时:现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,
也可表示过去已经开始,一直延续到现在的动作或状态。 构成: 主语 + have/has + 过去分词 + 其他。 注意:当主语是第三人称单数时用 has,其余人称用 have。 过去分词:规则动词的过去分词构成与动词过去式相同;不规则动词需要特殊记忆。 否定式:主语 + haven't/hasn't + 过去分词 + 其他。 疑问式: Have /Has + 主语 + 过去分词 + 其他? 简略答语: Yes, 主语 + have/has.(肯定) No, 主语 + haven't/hasn't.(否定) 1. 基本用法 1) 表示过去发生或已完成的某个动作对现在产生的影响或结果,强调的是这个影响或结果,常同 already, just, yet 等状语连用 Eg:I have just turned off the light. 我刚刚把灯关上。 (结果是灯已经关上了)
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She has lost her bike. 她把自行车丢了。 (影响是他现在没有自行车骑了) The rain has stopped now. 雨已经停了。 (结果是我们可以出门了) I have already read the book. 我已读过这本书了。 (结果是已知道这本书的内容) She has had a good education. 她受到过良好的教育。 (影响是她文化水平高,有修养) 2) 表示开始于过去、持续到现在的动作或状态,并可能继续下去(也可能不继续下去) ,同包括现 在在内的时间状语连用。 如 : today, now, this week, this morning, these days, this afternoon, recently, so far 等; 也同“for+时间段”或 “since+时间点”的状语连用 eg:We have had much snow this winter. 今年冬天多雪。 She has taught in the school for ten years. 她在这所学校教书已经 10 年了。 I haven't eaten anything since breakfast. 我从早饭起就一直没有吃东西。 We have been busy this morning. 今天上午我们一直很忙。 I have known her since we were children. 我从小就认识她。 I haven't seen John today. 我今天没有见到约翰。 It has rained a lot these days. 这些天多雨。 3) 表示从过去某一时间到说话时这段时间中反复发生的动作或多次动作的总和,常同频度副词 always, often, seldom, never 等连用 eg:He has done a lot of work in the past two years. 在过去两年中他做了许多工作。 I have learned about two hundred English words this morning. 本月我学了大约 200 个英语单词。 I have been to the Great Wall twice. 我曾经去过长城两次 It has rained every day this week. 这个星期天天下雨。 She has always walked to school. 她一直步行去学校。 I have never seen such a beautiful bird. 我从没见过这么美丽的鸟。 I have often met the old man on my way to work. 我在上班的路上常常遇见那位老 人 4) 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: ①现在完成时强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响和结果,而一般过去时与现在没有联系,只是说明 某个动作发生的时间是在过去。 eg:I have washed the car. 我洗过了车。 (看上去很漂亮) I washed the car a moment ago. 我刚才洗过车了。 She has watered the flowers. 她已经浇了花。 (不需要再浇了) She watered the flowers yesterday. 她昨天浇的花。 I have written the letter but I haven't posted it yet. 信我已经写好了,但还没有寄 出。 I wrote the letter last week and I posted it three days ago. 我上周写的那封信,3 天前寄出的。 ② 现在完成时表示的动作或状态延续到现在并可能延续下去,而一般过去时则单纯表示过去某段 时间内的经历。 eg: It has rained for five hours. 雨已经下了 5 个小时了。 It rained for five hours yesterday. 昨天下了 5 个小时的雨。 He has waited for her for two hours. 他等她已经两个小时了。 He waited for her two hours and then went home. 他等她等了两个小时, 然后就回 家了。 I have reviewed two lessons this morning. 今天上午我已经复习了两课。 (说话时还在
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上午 I reviewed two lessons this morning. 今天上午我复习了两课。 (说话时已是下午或晚 上) ③ 现在完成时与一般过去时的时间状语不同 现在完成时时间标志词: Clark became a driver two years ago. 克拉克两年前当了驾驶员。 The meeting has been on for five minutes. 会议已经开始 5 分钟了。 The meeting began five minutes ago. 会议 5 分钟前开始的。 Daisy has been up for ten minutes. 戴西起床已经 10 分钟了。 Daisy got up ten minutes ago. 戴西 10 分钟前起的床。 5)have/has been in / to 与 have/has gone to 的区别: “have/has gone to + 地点”表示“某人去了某地(还未回来)”,指主语所指的人不在这儿。 Eg. My father has gone to Shanghai, he will be back in two days. “have/has been in + 地点”表示“在某地呆了多长时间”,常与表示时间的状语连用。 Eg. Paul has been in the library for two hours. “have/has been to +地点”表示“曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿) 。” Eg. Tim has been to the Great Wall twice. 随堂练习: A 组:用适当的时态填空: 1.She’s _____________ (live) here ever since she was ten. 2.Both of them ________________ (be) in HongKong for ten days. 3.Both of them ________________ (come) to HongKong ten days ago. 4. Half an hour __________ (pass) since the train __________ (leave). 5. Mary________(lose) her pen. ________ you ______________ (see) it here and there? 6. _____________ you ____________ (find) your watch yet? 7. ---Are you thirsty? ---No I _________ just _____________ (have) some orange. 8. We _____________already ______________ (return) the book. 9. ___________ they ____________ (build) a new school in the village? 10. I ________________(not finish) my homework . Can you help me? 11. My father _____ (read) the novel twice. 12. I _________ (buy) a book just now. 13. I _________ (lose ) my watch yesterday. 14. My father ___________ (read) this book since yesterday. B 组:选择 ( )1. Mr. Li isn’t here. He ____ to England. ( ( ) ) (A) has been (B) have been (C) has gone (D) have gone 2. Mike ___ several places since he came to Beijing. (A) will visit (B) has visited (C) is visiting (D) visited 3. He _____ here in 1980. He ___ a teacher for over twenty years. (A) came; was (B) came; has been (C) has come; is (D) has come; has been 4. Lucy ___ many friends since she went to Paris. (A) made (B) is going to make (C)has made (D) makes 5. She ___ the dictionary to Alice yet. (A) has returned (B) hasn’t returned (C) would return (D) returned
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( (

) )

(

) 6. She said, “ I’m sorry to hear that he ___ ill for two weeks.” (A) has been (B) had been (C) was (D) will be ( ) 7.--- “Mum, may I go out and play basketball?” ---“_____ you ____ your homework yet?” (A) Do; do (B) Are, doing (C) Did, do (D) Have, done ( ) 8. “ Did you ___ the concert last night? “ “ Very much, I ____ to a concert for a long time.” (A) enjoy; haven’t gone (B) enjoy; haven’t been (C) enjoy , hadn’t gone (D) enjoyed , didn’t go ( ) 9. It _____ nice to see John yesterday. I ___ him for a long time. (A) was; haven’t seen (B) had been. Haven’t seen (C) was; hadn’t seen (D) had been, hadn’t seen ( ) 10. We have been friends since ______. (A)children (B) five years (C) five years ago (D) five years before C 组:用 have/has been to/in, have gone to 及 go 的各种形式填空。 1) Where is Jack? He __________ his country. 2) David ________ the park just now. 3) John _______ England since he came back. 4) How long _____ have _____ this village? 5) The Smiths ______ Beijing for years. 6) _____ you ever ____ America? -- Yes, I _____ there many times. 7) I _____ this school since three years ago. 8) Where is Jim? He _____ the farm. 9) When_____ he _____? He _______ an hour ago. 10) Would you like to _____ the zoo with me? ---Yes, but I _____ there before. 11) Where _____ you _____ now? --- I ____ the zoo. 12) He often _____ swimming. 13) _____ you ______ there last year? 14) _____ they often ______ skating in winter? ㈡ 感叹句:表达强烈情绪(喜、怒、哀、乐、惊、恐等)的句子。 1. 句型一: How + 形容词/ 副词 +主语+ 谓语 How lovely the weather is ! 天气多好啊 How hard they are working! 他们干得多起劲阿! 2. 句型二: What+(a)+ 形容词+名词+主语+ 谓语 What a clever boy he is ! 多么聪明的孩子啊! What hardworking students they are ! 他们是多么用功的学生啊! What inspiring news it is ! 多么鼓舞人心的消息啊! 3. 句型三: How + 形容词 What+ (a) + 名词 How wonderful (it is) ! 妙极了! What an idea (it is)! 这主意! What fine weather (it is) ! 多好的天气啊! 随堂练习: A 组: 将下列句子变成感叹句: 1. It is quite a nice present.→_____ _____ nice present!
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2. We have fine weather today.→ _____ _____ weather we have today! 3. It’s sunny today.→_____ _____ sunny day it is today! 4. The children are working hard.→ _____ _____ the children are working! 5. She played basketball wonderfully.→ _____ _____ she played basketball! 6. He is good at singing.→_____ _____ he sings! 7. He was doing well in dancing.→ _____ a _____ dancer he was! 8. Tom coughs badly.→_____ _____ _____ cough Tom has! 9. The fish is very lovely.→_____ _____ the fish is! 10. They live a happy life today.→_____ _____ _____ life they live! B 组: 选择 ( ) 1. ____ a nice watch it is! A) How B) What C) What a D) How a ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 2. ____ bright girls they are! A) What B) What a C) How ) 3. ____ interesting the film is!(1998 湖北) A)What B) What an C) How D) How a D) How a

) 4. ____ sunny day! Let’s go out for a walk. A) How a B) How C) What a D) What ) 5. ____ hard work it is! A) How B) What C) What a D) What an ) 6. ____ day it is! It’s rainy again. A) How bad B) What a bad C) How fine D) What a fine ) 7. ____ great day July 1,1997 will be! A) How a B) What a C) How D)What )8. ____ expensive trousers! A) What B) What a C) How D) What an

第九讲

反意疑问句与交际用语

㈠ 反意疑问句:又叫做附加疑问句,它表示提问人的看法,没有把握需要对方证实。
1. 构成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态保持一致。 2. 基本原则是:若前一部分为肯定,则后一部分为否定;若前一部分为否定,则后一部分为肯定。 对反意疑问问句的回答,不管提法如何,若事实是肯定的,就用 yes; 事实是否定的,就用 no。 第一部分是否定句,其盈余回答和汉语回答有区别: Eg. You are going home, aren’t you? 你回家,是不是? Yes, I am. 是的,我回家。 No, I’m not. 不,我不回家 There will be a film this evening, won’t there? 今晚有电影,是不是? Yes, there is. 是的,今晚有电影。 No, there won’t. 不,今晚没有电影。 Mike can’t swim, can he? 麦克布会游泳,是吗? Yes, he can. 不, 他会游泳。 No, he can’t. 不,今晚没有电影。 You haven’t met my brother, have you? 你没有见过我兄弟, 是吗? Yes, I have. 不, 我见过。 No, I haven’t. 是的, 我没见过。
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注意: 1. 如果陈述句是行为动词, 且改动词没有助动词时,简短问句要用助动词 do(does, did)。当 need 用作实义动词时,也要用助动词 do( does, did)。 2. 陈述句中包含有: no, little, never, few, hardly 等词, 构成否定形式。 简短问句应用肯定 形式。 There is little water in the jar, is there? 缸里几乎没有水,是吗? 3. 在陈述句中的主语,如果是: anybody, everyone, everybody, somebody, no one 等时, 简短问句的主语用 they 或 he. Anybody can do it, can’t they? 任何人都可以做这件事,不是吗? Everyone knows his duty, doesn’t he? 每个人都知道自己的职责, 不是吗? Nobody likes this novel, do they? 没有人喜欢这本小说,对吗? 4. 在陈述句中的主语, 如果是 something, anything, nothing, everything 等时, 简短问句 的主语用 it. Everything is all right, isn’t it? 一切都正常,不是吗? Nothing serious happened last week, did it? 上周没有发生什么严重的事情,对吗? 5. 反意疑问句的结构是: “祈使句+简短问句”时,不论祈使句是肯定句还是否定句,其 简短问句 都用“will you?” Sit down please, will you? 请坐吧,好吗? Don’t smoke in the meeting room, will you? 别在会议室里吸烟,好吗? 6. 反意疑问句的结构是:“以 let’s 开头+简短问句”时,其简短句用“shall we?” It’s a fine day. Let’s go skating, shall we? 天气很好,我们去滑冰好吗? Let’s not watch TV before supper, shall we? 咱们在晚饭前别看电视, 好吗? 7. 当主语部分是 I think(suppose, expect, believe, imagine, guess) +从句时, 简短问句和 从句的人称,时态保持一致。 I think chickens can swim, can’t they? 我认为鸡会游泳,不是吗? I believe Lucy is a good girl, isn’t she? 我认为露西是个好女孩,不是吗 ? 随堂练习: A 组: 选择 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. The old man can hardly read, __________? A) can’t he B) is he C) can he D) isn’t he ) 2. I think you’ll be angry with me, _________? A) will you B) do I C) don’t I D) won’t you ) 3. Nothing had been decided, ______________? A) was it B) has it C) did they D) have they ) 4. You were on the farm yesterday, _____________? A) didn’t B) don’t C) can’t D) weren’t ) 5. The poor man needs our help, __________ he? A) need B) needn’t C) does D) doesn’t ) 6. Tom has supper at school, _________ ? A) hasn’t he B) has he C) doesn’t he D) does he ) 7. He’s never watched such an important watch, ___________? A) hasn’t he B) has he C) isn’t he D) is he ) 8. He’s almost finished _______ the book, _________ he? A) reading, isn’t B) to read, isn’t C) reading, hasn’t D) to read; hasn’t ) 9. You have few friends, ___________? A) haven’t B) have you C) you have D) you haven’t
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(

(

) 10. Don’t close the window, __________ you? A) did B) will C) was D) won’t ( ) 11. Let’s go shopping, ________ we? A) shall B) will C) was D) is ( ) 12. Joan’s late for school, ____________? A) wasn’t she B) hasn’t she C) isn’t she D) doesn’t she B 组: 完成下列反意疑问句 1. That’s a model plane, ______________? 2. There’s going to be a meeting this afternoon, ______________? 3. He has a lot of work to do , ________________? 4. They usually play football after school, ____________? 5. You had a talk with John just now, ____________? 6. Tom didn’t watch TV last night, _________________? 7. She’s been to Shanghai, ______________? 8. Mary made few mistakes in the exam, _______________? 9. He has never seen her before, ____________________? 10. Jack hardly goes to the cinema, ___________________?

㈡ 交际用语:
1. 问候: Greetings ⑴ Good morning/afternoon/evening. 早上好、 下午好、晚上好 Hello/Hi. 嗨! How are you? 你好吗? ⑵ Fine, thank you, And you? 很好,谢谢,你呢? Very well, thank you. 很好,谢谢! 2.介绍 Introductions ⑴.This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Comrade…. 这是……先生、 女士 ⑵.How do you do? 你好吗? Nice/Glad to see/meet you. 很高兴见到你。 ⑶.My name is…. I’m a student/worker . 我叫……。 我是个学生、工人 3.告别 Farewells ⑴. I think it’s time for us to leave now. 我想我们该离开了。 ⑵. Goodbye! (Bye-bye! Bye!) 再见 See you later/tomorrow. (See you.) 回头见,明天见 Good night. 晚安。 4.打电话 Making telephone calls ⑴. Hello! May I speak to …? 你好,我想找… Is that… (speaking)? 你是……吗? ⑵. Hold on, please. 您别挂。 He/She isn’t here right now. 他/ 她现在不在这儿。 Can I take a message for you? 我能替你捎个口信吗? ⑶. I’m calling to tell/ask you… 我打电话是想告诉你/问你…… ⑷. Goodbye. 再见 5.感谢和应答 Thanks and responses ⑴ .Thank you (very much). (非常)感谢 Thanks a lot. 多谢。 Many thanks. 多谢。
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Thanks for… 谢谢, 因为…… ⑵. Not at all. 没关系 That’s all right. 没关系 You’re welcome. 不客气 6.祝愿,祝贺和应答 Good wishes, congratulations, responses ⑴.Good luck! 祝你好运! Best wishes to you. 祝你万事如意 Have a nice/good time. 玩的开心! Congratulations! 祝贺你! ⑵.Thank you. 谢谢! ⑶. Happy New Year! 新年好! Merry Christmas! 圣诞快乐! Happy birthday to you. 生日快乐! ⑷.The same to you. 7.意愿 Intentions I’m going to… 我打算… I will... 我想… I’d like to… 我想… I want/hope to… 我想、我希望…… 8.道歉和应答 Apologies and responses ⑴. I’m sorry. (Sorry.) 对不起 I’m sorry for/about… 对不起,因为… Excuse me. 抱歉,打扰一下 ⑵.That’s all right. /It doesn’t matter. /That’s nothing. 没关系。 9.遗憾和同情 Regrets and sympathy What a pity! 太遗憾了! I’m sorry to hear… 我很难过听到有关…… 10.邀请和应答 Invitations and responses ⑴.Will you come to…? 你来……吗? Would you like to…? 你愿意…..吗? ⑵. Yes, I’d love to… 是的,我愿意 Yes, it’s very kind/nice of you. 你太好了 ⑶.I’d love to, but… 我是想的, 但是… 11.提供(帮助等)和应答 Offers and responses ⑴.Can I help you? /What can I do for you?/ 需要我帮忙吗? Here, take this/my… 这儿, 帮我拿…… Let me…for you. 让我为你…… Would you like some…? 你想要一些……吗? ⑵.Thanks. That would be nice/fine. 谢谢,太好了。 Thank you for your help. 谢谢你的帮助。 Yes, please. 好的。 ⑶. No, thanks/thank you. 不, 谢谢。 That’s very kind of you, but… 你要好了,但是…… 12.请求允许和应答 Asking for permission and responses ⑴.May I…? 我可以……吗? Can/Could I…? 我能……吗?
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⑵.Yes/Certainly. 是的,当然了 Yes, do please. 好 Of course (you may). 当然了。 That’s Ok/all right. 好吧! ⑶. I’m sorry, but… 对不起,但是…… You’d better not. 你最好不要这样。 13.表示同意和不同意 Expressing agreement and disagreement ⑴.Certainly/Sure/Of course. 当然了 Yes, please. 好 Yes, I think so. 好,我想是这样 ⑵.That’s true. 对 All right/OK. 好的 That’s a good idea. 那是好主意 I agree (with you). 我同意。 ⑶.No, I don’t think so. 不,我不这么认为。 I’m afraid not. 我恐怕不行 I really can’t agree with you. 我真的不认同你的看法 14.表示肯定和不肯定 Expressing certainty and uncertainty ⑴.I’m sure. 我确定 I’m sure (that) … 我确定… ⑵.I’m not sure. 我不确定 I’m not sure whether/if… 我不确定是否…… ⑶.Maybe/Perhaps 也许 15.喜好和厌恶 Likes and dislikes ⑴ I like/love… (very much). 我(非常) 喜欢…… I like/love to… 我喜欢…… ⑵ I don’t like (to) … 我不喜欢…… I hate (to) … 我讨厌…… 16.谈论天气 Talking about the weather ⑴.What’s the weather like today? 今天天气怎么样? How’s the weather in…? ……的天气怎么样? ⑵.It’s fine/cloudy/windy/rainy, etc. 晴天;多云; 有风; 有雨…… It’s rather warm/cold/hot/etc. today, isn’t it? 今天比较暖和/冷/热,不是吗? 17.购物 Shopping ⑴.What can I do for you? / May/Can I help you? 您需要什么吗? ⑵.I want/I’d like… 我想要…… How much is it? 多少钱? That’s too much/expensive, I’m afraid. 太贵了, 我恐怕。 。 。 That’s fine. I’ll take it. 好,我要了。 Let me have…kilo/box, etc. 我要……斤/盒等 ⑶How many/much do you want? 你好多少? What colour/size/kind do you want? 你想要什么颜色/尺寸/种类的? ⑷.Do you have any other kind/size/colour,etc.? 你还有别的种类 /尺寸/颜色…… 吗? 18.问路和应答 Asking the way and responses ⑴.Excuse me. Where’s the men’s/ladies’ room? 劳驾,请问男/女洗手间在哪里?
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Excuse me, can you tell me the way to…? 打扰一下, 你能告诉我去……的路吗? How can I get to…? I don’t know the way. 我怎么能到…? 我不认识路。 ⑵.Go down this street. 沿着这条街走。 Turn right/left at the first/second crossing. 在第一/二个十字路口向右/左拐。 It’s about …metres from here. 到这大约……米。 19.问时间或日期和应答 Asking the time or date and responses ⑴.What day is (it) today? 今天星期几? What’s the date today? 今天几号? What time is it? / What’s the time, please? 现在几点了? ⑵ It’s Monday/Tuesday, etc. 今天星期一/二 It’s January 10th. 今天 10 月 1 日 It’s five o,clock/half past five/a quarter to five/five thirty, etc. 五点/五点半/五点差一刻 /五点半 It’s time for… 到……的时间了 20.请求 Requests ⑴.Can/Could you…for me? 你能帮我……吗? Will/would you please…? 你愿意……吗? May I have…? 我可以……吗? ⑵.Please give/pass me… 请给我/递给我…… Please wait (here/a moment). 请在这儿等/请等一会儿 Please wait for your turn. 请按顺序等候。 Please stand in line/line up. 请站成行。 Please hurry. 快点 ⑶.Don’t rush/crowd. 不要挤 No noise, please. 不许喧哗! No smoking, please. 禁止吸烟! 21.劝告和建议 Advice and suggestions ⑴.You’d better… 你最好…… You should… 你应该…… You need (to)… 你需要…… ⑵.Shall we…? 我们可以……吗? Let’s… 让我们…… What /How about…? ……怎么样? 22.禁止和警告 Prohibition and warnings ⑴You can’t/mustn’t… 你不能…… If you…, you’ll… 如果你……,你将…… ⑵.Take care !/ Be careful !/ Look out ! 当心,小心,注意! 23.表示感情 Expressing certain emotions ⑴.喜悦 Pleasure, joy I’m glad/pleased/happy to… 我很高兴…… That’s nice. 太好了 That’s wonderful/great. 太棒了。 ⑵.焦虑 Anxiety What’s wrong? 怎么了? What’s the matter (with you)? 你怎么了? I’m/He’s/She’s worried. Oh, what shall I/we do?
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我/他/她很担心,我/我们该怎么办? ⑶.惊奇 Surprise Really? 真的? Oh dear? 噢,天啊! Is that so? 真的吗? What? 什么? 24.就餐 Taking meals ⑴.What would you like to have? 你想要点什么? Would you like something to eat/drink? 你想吃/喝什么? ⑵.I’d like… 我想…… Would you like some more…? 你还想要点……吗? Help yourself to some… 随便吃点…… ⑶.Thank you. I’ve had enough/Just a little, please. 谢谢!我够了/再来一点儿吧 25.约会 Making appointments ⑴.Are you free this afternoon/evening? 你今天下午/晚上有空吗? How about tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening? 明天上午/下午/晚上怎么 样? Shall we meet at 4: 30 at…? 我们在四点半. . . . . .见面怎么样? ⑵.Yes, that’s all right. 好的 Yes, I’ll be free then. 好的, 到时候见! ⑶.No, I won’t be free then. But I’ll be free… 不行,我那时没空。 但是我. . . . . .有空 ⑷ . All right. See you then. 好的, 到时候见! 26.传递信息 Passing on a message ⑴.Will you please give this note/message to…? 你能吧这个便条/消息 给. . . . . .吗? ⑵.. .asked me to give you this note. . . . . . .叫我将这个便条给你。 ⑶.Thanks for the message. 谢谢你给我带的消息。 27.看病 Seeing the doctor ⑴.There’s something wrong with… 不舒服 I’ve got a cough. 我咳嗽 I feel terrible(bad). 我感觉不舒服 I don’t feel well. 我感觉不好 I’ve got a pain here. 我这儿疼 This place hurts. 这个地方疼 ⑵.Take this medicine three times a day. 吃这种药,一天三次 Drink plenty of water and have a good rest. 多多喝水,好好休息 It’s nothing serious. 没什么严重的 You’ll be right/well soon. 你很快就会好的 28.求救 Calling for help ⑴.Help! 救命 ⑵.What’s the matter? 怎么了? 29.语言困难 Language difficulties Pardon. 请再说一遍 Please say that again/more slowly. 请再/慢慢说一次 What do you mean by…? 你的意思是. . .? I’m sorry I can’t follow you. 对不起, 我没听懂(你说的话)
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I’m sorry I know only a little English. 对不起,我只会一点点英语 30.常见的标志和说明 Some common signs and instructions BUSINESS HOURS 营业时间 FRAGILE 易碎的 OFFICE HOURS 办公时间 THIS SIDE UP 朝上放 OPEN 营业着的 MENU 菜单 CLOSED 关闭的 NO SMOKING 禁止吸烟 PULL 拉 NO PARKING 禁止停车 PUSH 推 NO PHOTOS 禁止拍照 ON DANGER! 有危险 OFF 离开/关闭/中断 PLAY 开始/播放 ENTRANCE 入口 STOP 止步/停止 EXIT 出口 PAUSE 暂停 随堂练习: A 组: ( ) 1.---Would you like to go out for a walk with us? ---_________, but I must finish my homework first. A. Of course not B. That’s all right C. I’d love to D. Yes, I do ( )2. ---I haven’t seen Jack for three days. Is he ill? ---________. His mother told me that he was in hospital. A. I am afraid so B. I hope not C. I don’t expect D. I am afraid not ( )3. ---Thank you for your delicious dinner. ---__________. A. Don’t say that B. It’s nothing C. I don’t think so D. I’m glad you enjoyed it ( )4. Turn the box over, please. Can’t you see the words “________”? A. DANGER B. MENU C. THIS SIDE UP D. FRAGILE B组:单项选择 ( )1. ---I hope you don’t mind my pointing out your mistakes. ----_________ . A. Not at all B. You’re welcome C. Of course D. It’s a pleasure )2. ---I’m sorry. I’ve broken your cup. ---_______ . A. It doesn’t matter B. Thank you C. Not at all D. Excuse me )3. ---Shall we go to the zoo tomorrow? ---_________ A. It doesn’t matter. B. That’s nothing. C. Good idea! D. You’re welcome. )4. ---Will you go shopping together with us this Sunday, Jenny? ---Yes, __________. A. I do B. I’d like to C. I’d love to do D. I’m busy )5. ---What a nice meal! Thank you for having us. ---________. A. It doesn’t matter B. It was a pleasure C. Not nice enough D. With pleasure
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)6. --Wish you a happy New Year! ---________. A. The same to you B. You do too C. The same as you D. You have it too ( )7. ---Hello. May I speak to Tom Smith? ---Yes. _______. A. My name’s Tom Smith B. I’m Tom Smith C. This is Tom Smith D. Tom Smith’s me ( )8. ---What are Johnson’s family like? ---____________. A. His family is just like mine B. They all like sports and games C. Oh, it’s really a big one D. They are all warm-hearted and helpful ( )9. ---Do you mind if I open the door? ---_______. A. No, of course not B. Yes, please C. Yes, you can D. No, you can’t open it ( )10.---Help yourself to some fruit. ---__________ A. Thank you. B. Yes, I like it very much. C. OK. It’s nothing serious. D. Really? C组: 交际英语 ( )1. -----Hold on, please. A. Are you Bruce, please B. Who are you C. Are you at home, Bruce D. May I speak to Bruce, please. )2. -----________________. A. Don’t ask me B. Sure. You can take the No.3 bus C. You’re welcome D. Thank you all the same. )3. -----________________. A. Yes, it’s very bad B. Yours is good C. Of course not D. Thank you. )4. -----_________________. A. I’ve got a headache B. She’ll take some medicine C. I’ve got a new bike D. I’m a doctor. )5. -----________________. A. You are happy B. The same to you C. Happy birthday D. Yes, I’m happy, too. )6. ----A. I like the weather B. It’s sunny C. I don’t like the weather D. It’s rain )7. -----It’s Saturday.
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A. What’s the date B. What time is it C. What day is it today )8. -----__________________. A. I’d love to. But I’m afraid I can’t B. Yes, I can’t C. No, I would D. Yes, I wouldn’t )9. -----__________________.

(

)10. -----__________________. A. Congratulations! C. Thank you for telling me.

B. Bad luck! D. It’s nothing.

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