Helen Yjx, GE
Helen Yjx, GE
（一）Task1： 小作文：______（类）考生写图表；_______（类）考生写书信；时间_________分钟；字数至少_______字；评分比值 大约是：_______ （二）Task2： 大作文：要求在_________分钟之内完成一篇至少_______字的大作文，评分比值大约是：_______
TASK 1：TA_____________；CC_____________；LR _____________；GRA _________________ TASK 2：TR_____________；CC_____________；LR _____________；GRA _________________
（一）图表分类： 1、主流图形： ________图（curve graph/ line chart） ，________图（bar chart/column chart） ，________图（pie/fan chart）和________ （table） 。 2、非主流图形： ________图、________图（diagram/flow chart） 、________（map） 、主流图形的组合图（combinations） （二）图表出题频率： 最多柱状图，其次曲线图，再者饼状图，表格。 （三）图表 3 大忌： 切忌发表________________，切忌词汇_____________、切忌简单________数据、避免句子____________ （四）写作注意事项： 1、词汇语法特征：词汇准确多样，不能重复，如：those who work in = people working in = the employee in 2、句子特征：结构不能太简单，一句话要同时写两个对象的特征。 3、逻辑特征：句子本身，句子之间，段落之间都要使用表示对比，转折，相似的连词或副词。 4、时态特征：第一句使用一般现在时，主体部分_______________________________________________________。
（一）文本： 1、________词汇（key words）： 2、写首句： （二）图表 1、有题目看题目，没有题目看________（items） 2、找________（laws） 3、________（paragraph）布局谋篇
（一）柱形图 1、范例： 2
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You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below gives information about the preferred leisure activities of Australian children. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. You should write at least 150 words
2、model answer: The graph _________(show/illustrate) the preferred leisure activities of Australian children aged 5-14. As might be expected, it is clear from the data that ___________(静态的) pursuits are far more popular nowadays than ________(动态的) ones.
Of the 10,000 children that were interviewed, all the boys and girls stated that they ___________(喜欢) watching TV or videos ___________________( 业 余 时 间 ). ___________( 此 外 ),
___________________________(其次受欢迎的) activity, ___________ (吸引) 80% of boys and 60% of girls, was playing electronic or computer games（注意该句型中插入语，现在分词短语的使用，精彩！）. While girls rated activities such as art and craft highly —— just under 60% stated that they ___________(喜欢) these ___________________(业余时间) ——only 35% of boys opted for creative pastimes. Bike riding, on the other hand, was almost as popular as electronic games amongst boys and, perhaps surprisingly, almost 60% of girls said that they enjoyed this too. Skateboarding was relatively ______________(不太受欢迎的) amongst both boys and girls, although it still attracted 35% of boys and 25% of girls. (157 words) 3、柱形图的总结
（二）曲线图 1、范例 The graph shows Underground Station Passenger Numbers in London. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. You should write at least 150 words. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
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2、范文 The line graph _____________ how the number of people using a London underground station _____________(变化) over the course of 16 hours.
As _____________如图所示 from the graph, at 6 am the number of people at the station stands at only 100. The number _____________急剧上升 over the next two hours, _________达到峰值 at 400 at 8 am. Then the number _____________急剧下降 for two hours, _________________到达低谷 at 180 at 10 am. The period between 10 o’clock and 12 o’clock ____________（见证了/经历了） a ____________（小幅上升）in the number of people in the station, with the number reaching 280 at midday.
Numbers in the following two hours almost ____________（稳定不变）at just under 300 people. Then the number ____________（急剧下降）to only 100 from 2 pm to 4 pm. Then the next two hours ____________
（见证了/经历了） a ____________ （急剧上升） again, with 6 pm registering 380 people. After 6 pm, the number ________（下降）again, ________（到达） the ____________（低点）of 130 at 8 pm. The period from 8 pm to 10 pm ____________（见证了/经历了） a ____________（小幅上升）, but then the number of people _______（下降）again from 180 at 9 pm to 135 at 10 pm.
This line graph clearly demonstrates that rush hours in the early morning and the early evening are periods when the station is used by the most people. （214 words） 3、总结
（四）饼形图 1、范例 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The two graphs show the main sources of energy in the USA in the 1980s and the 1990s. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the changes which occurred. Write at least 150 words.
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2、Model answer: The two graphs show(换掉该词) that oil was the major energy source in the USA in both 1980 and 1990 and that coal, natural gas and hydroelectric power _______________ (保持不变) proportions. _______________ (另一 方便), there was _______________ (急剧上升) in nuclear power, which __________ (翻番) its percentage
over the ten years. _______________ (小幅)
Oil supplied the __________ (最大) percentage of energy, although the percentage ___________ (下降) from 42% in 1980 to 33% in 1990. Coal in 1990 was _______________ ( 第 二 大 ) source of energy, _______________ (增加) its proportion to 27% from 22% in the previous decade. Natural gas, the second largest source in 1980 at 26%, decreased its share very ___________ (小幅) to provide 25% of America’s energy ten years later. There was no change in the percentage supplied by hydroelectric power which remained at 5% of the total energy used. Nuclear power the greatest change: in 1990 it was 10%, twice that of the 1980s. （152 words: (雷人啊，能掐会算啊) 3、总结
（四）表格 1、范例 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The table below provides information on rental charges and salaries in three areas of London. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. You should write at least 150 words.
The table shows two sets of related information: the relative cost, in pounds, of renting a property with one, two or three bedrooms in three different suburbs of London and an indication of the kind of annual salary you would need to be earning to rent in these areas. 5
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Of the three areas mentioned, Notting Hill is _________________(最贵的) with weekly rents starting at ? 375 (salary approximately ? 100,000) and rising to ? 738 per week for a 3-bedroom property. To afford this, you would require a salary in the region of ? 200,000 per annum. Alternatively, Fulham is ______________(最 便宜) area shown with rents ranging from ? 215 per week for a one bedroom property to ? 600 per week for a 3-bedroom property.___________________________________________________________________________ _______. __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________. To rent in this area, salaries need to be somewhere between ? 85,000 and ? 170,000 depending on the number of bedrooms required.
For those able to pay in the middle price range for accommodation, Regent's Park might be a more suitable district. (163 words) 3、总结
（五）流程图 1、范例 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The flowchart illustrates the production of coloured plastic paper clips in a small factory. Write a report for a university tutor describing the production process. Write at least 150 words
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There are _________ main stages in the production of plastic paper clips from this small factory. Two of these stages involve ______________ of the clips, while the other two consist of _____________ before the clips are sent out from the factory to the retailers to be sold to the public.
______________(首先）, molten plastic is poured into three different moulds ______________(根据）the colour required: the colours are red, blue and yellow. _______(一旦）these clips emerge from the moulds a quality control machine checks them for strength. Unsatisfactory clips are rejected. ______________(第三） in the process the clips are stored by hand into two groups, mixed and single colours. ________(当） this stage is complete the groups are checked a second time to ensure that the colour mixtures are divided correctly into single colours and mixed colour batches. ______________(最后）, the clips are packed and dispatched to the markets. （152 words 惜字如金啊） 3、总结
（六）地图 1、范例 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. You should write at least 150 words. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
The first potential location (S1) is outside the town itself, and is _____________(坐落在) just off the main 7
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road to the town of Hindon, _____________( 坐 落 在 ) 12 kms to the north-west. This site is in the _____________(乡下) and so would be able to _____________(提供) a lot of car parking. This would make it _____________(便利) to shoppers from both Hindon and Garlsdon who could travel by car. _____(因为) it is also close to the railway line ___________(连接) the two towns to Cransdon (25 km to the south-east), a potentially large number of shoppers would also be able to travel by train.
_____________(相反), the suggested location, S2, is right in the town centre, which would be good for local residents. Theoretically the store could be _________(到达) by road or rail from the _________(附近) towns, including Bransdon, but as the central area is a no-traffic zone, cars would be unable to park and access would be difficult.
_________(总之), neither site is _________(合适) for all the towns, but for customers in Cransdon, Hindon and Garlsdon, the out-of-town site (S1) would probably offer more advantages. （179 words）
（七）混合图 1、范例： You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The charts below show the percentage of their food budget the average family spent on restaurant meals in different years. The graph shows the number of meals eaten in fast food restaurants and sit-down restaurants. You should write at least 150 words. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
Over the past 30 years, the average family has ______________(急剧上升) the number of meals that they eat at restaurants. The percentage of the family's food budget spent on restaurant meals ______________(稳步 上升). Just 10 percent of the food budget was spent on restaurant meals in 1970, and 15 percent in 1980. That percentage ______________(两倍以上) in 1990, _______(至) 35 percent, and _________(上升) 2000 to 50 percent. again in
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Where families eat their restaurant meals also changed during that 30-year period. In 1970, families ate ______________( 同 等 数 量 ) of meals at fast food and sit-down restaurants. In 1980, families ate __________(轻微地) more frequently at sit-down restaurants. __________(然而), since 1990, fast food restaurants serve more meals to the families than do the sit-down restaurants. Most of the restaurant meals from 2000 were eaten at fast food restaurants. If this pattern continues, ______________(最后) the number of meals that families eat at fast food restaurants could double the number of meals they eat at sit-down restaurants.（164 words） 3、总结
一、Task 2 的作文类型
1、2011 年 5 月 19 日：The government should control the levels of violence in films or on television in order to decrease the levels of violent crime in the society. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 2、2011 年 4 月 16 日：Every one believe that it is important to protect the environment however seldom do themselves, what is your opinion? Why is it important to protect environment by ourselves? What action should we do? 3、2011 年 3 月 5 日：Some people believe governments should spend money on measures to save ‘languages of few speakers’ from dying out completely. Others think this is a waste of financial resources. your position. 4、2011 年 2 月 12 日：Tourism has not only benefited but also harmed the development of many countries. What problems does it bring about? How can countries ensure that tourism benefits their own development? 5、 2011 年 1 月 15 日： Now some workplaces like to employ an equal number of men and women workers. Do you think it is a positive or negative development? 6、2010 年 12 月 16 日：Young people are often influenced in their behaviours and situations by others in the same age. This is called “peer pressure”. Do the disadvantages outweigh the advantages? Discuss both views and give
（一）什么是一边倒 1、下面分别适合哪种写作方式 (1) (To what extent) do you agree or disagree? (2) What is your opinion/view? (3) What do you think? (4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of something? (5) What are the benefits and drawbacks of something? (6) Discuss both sides and give your opinion. 2、典型范文分析 教材 P86 Topic 1 的 Sample 1 和 Sample 2；P89 的 Topic 3，Sample 1；P93 的 Topic 6；P94 的 Topic 7 3、框架结构
（二）什么是对称式/平衡式 1、典型范文分析 9
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教材 P88 Topic 2 的 Sample 1 和 Sample 2；P89 的 Topic 3，Sample 2；P91 Topic4；P93 Topic 6；P95 Topic 8 2、框架结构
（三）什么是解释型/问题解决型题目) 1、典型题目： (1) 2010-1-23：The gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider. The rich are growing richer and the poor are growing poorer. What are the causes of this? What measures can be taken to reduce this problem？ (2) 2010-1-30：Today there is a great increase in anti-social behavior and lack of respect to others. What are the causes of this? What measures can be taken to reduce this problem？ (3) 2010-3-6：Survey shows that in many countries across the people are living longer but increased life expectancy has many implications for the aging individuals and for society as a whole. What are the possible effect of longer living for individuals and society? (4) 2010-3-27：Studies suggest that children spend more time on watching TV than they do in the past and spend less on doing active or creative things. Why do you think this is case? What measurement and methods can be used to tackle with it? (5) 2010-5-29： Many young people today leave school with a negative attitude towards learning. Why do you think this is happening? What can be done to encourage a positive attitude to learning in young people?
Traffic is developing rapidly all round the world at present. What are the traffic problems in your country? What causes these problems? Make some recommendations.
Transportation has been developing rapidly in recent years, especially in large cities. However, it must be admitted that, along with the benefits of the rapid development of urban traffic（插入语）, have come certain problems. One of the biggest problems, in my opinion（插入语）, is traffic jams in some heavily populated cities. It has become common to see passengers and drivers having to wait in long lines of buses and cars moving at a snail's pace on the streets during the rush hours. It is not easy to find the reasons and solutions for this complicated phenomenon which involves several factors.
There are several reasons for this problem（本段主题句）. First, the number of vehicles is increasing much more rapidly than the building of roads. No sooner has a new road been completed and opened to public traffic than it is crowded with all kinds of vehicles（倒装句型，漂亮！！！）. Second, there seem to be too many private cars and not enough public buses. In most cases, a car carries only one or two people, while it occupies almost half the space a bus does. Third, many people, including drivers, pedestrians and cyclists do not obey traffic rules properly, especially at busy intersections. And this undoubtedly worsens the already grave situation.
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In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures must be taken before things get worse（本段主 题句）. On the one hand, the government should invest more money in the building of new roods and the repairing and maintenance of old ones, particularly those in busy areas of the cities. On the other hand, the number of private cars in urban areas should be limited while the number of public buses should be increased. At the same time, it is essential that stricter traffic rules and regulations be issued to strengthen traffic control and facilitate the normal and efficient running of all means of transportation. With such efforts made and persisted in, I am confident that it will not be long before all the problems are solved properly. (Band 8) 3、框架结构
三、作文中各部分的写法指导 ※ 首段写法：
（一）背景句的写法 如果题目中有背景句，可以对之进行改写 1、例子：At present it is hard for college graduates to find jobs. Many people claim that college teachers should give priority to practical courses like computer science and business over such traditional ones as history and geography. What do you think? at present—— hard—— college graduates—— many—— claim—— 2、背景句改写练习 改写练习 1：The position of women in the society has changed greatly in the past 20 years.
改写练习 2：Widespread tobacco consumption has led to grave consequences, yet the tobacco companies are still claiming that they make a valuable contribution to the world economy.
3、如果题目中没有背景句，可以使用如下背景句常用句型 Nothing has received more praise and abuse than …. Never has …failed to fascinate us in modern society. … can never fail to attract people’s eyes. There is a general debate nowadays about… There is no consensus of opinions among people as to... People go into raptures at …too much. One of the pressing problems facing us today is …. Perhaps no issues are more controversial than .... The problem of … has aroused public concern all over the world. …will undoubtedly have a profound influence on our lives. （二）首段一方观点的写法 11
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1、宾语从句的写法 Some Many Most A majority of An overwhelming majority of A sizable percentage of 2、同位语从句的写法 Some Many Most A majority of An overwhelming majority of A sizable percentage of 3、表语从句的写法 The opinion view/point of view of belief/perspective +some + many +most +a majority of +an overwhelming majority of +a sizable percentage of 4、主语从句的写法 （1） It is the opinion/ view belief/perspective point of view of + many +some + most people +a majority of +an overwhelming majority of +a sizable percentage of （2） It is (universally/widely/generally/extensively) held/deemed + acknowledged believed/thought that…. （三）另一方观点的写法 可以通过改换?人? ，使用以上四种名词性句型，如： 1、一方观点. Others Other people Some others Some other people 2、一方观点. But/however, +some/some other 12 +表示观点的动词+that…宾语从句 + that…..主语从句 +people + is + that…..表语从句 +advocate +believe +people + +hold + the opinion +view/point of view +belief/perspective + that…..同位语从句 +assert /argue/ assume/advocate +believe /contend/claim +people + deem/hold/insist +maintain/suggest/suppose +point out +that…..宾语从句
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(towards the same issue), there are also + many +people + who believe that…/hold the view that … +others +whose view is that…….
On the other hand, 3、一方观点， while , but whereas +others +other people +some others +some other people 4、一方观点，
衔接副词，some other people stand on the opposite position/a different ground. They 表示观点的动词+that…宾语从句 +some/some other 5、一方观点， 衔接副词，there are also + many +others （四）个人观点的写法 1、个人观点直接陈述 In my view/opinion/point of view/perspective, I …… As for me/for my part/to my part/from my point of view/perspective, I …… Personally, I hold that…… I do strongly support the idea that…… With views of both sides considered, I think that……/I hold the opinion that…… When faced this issue, I find comfort in the idea that…… 2、表示赞同前者/后者观点 (1 ) 本部分可以省略：There is probably a little bit of truth in both argument, (2) in my view/opinion/point of view/perspective, as for me/for my part/to my part/from my point of view/perspective, personally, … (3) 本部分可以省略：after a thorough consideration/when considering opinions of both sides/thinking logically/if I have to choose one of these two (4) I totally absolutely whole-heartedly completely fully +agree with/approve of +consent to/share/vote for +side with/stand on +am the same with/identical with… +am in favor of +take side with/tend to favor 3、表示反对前者/后者观点 （1）就……而言，I + could not +share/go along with +the latter/former point of view. +who+ despise the above attitude. +take a negative attitude. +are strongly opposed to this opinion.
could hardly +disagree with/am against + the former/latter view. +am opposed to/object to +disapprove of （2）this point of view seems absurd and ridiculous/foolish/flimsy/undesirable/fallacious 13
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（3）at first thought, it may seem to be attractive/reasonable/sound/constructive/logical/ valid, but a closer of inspection of these arguments, it does not hold water/bear closer analysis. 4、开头段引起下文 (1) The reasons are presented below/chiefly as follows. A number of cases account for my point. My arguments for this point are listed as follows. This view is based on the propensity of the following points. (2) There are +many reasons supporting my view. +no less than three reasons as rendered below. +many reasons that can verify this point of view. +numerous reasons why…and I will explore them in the following paragraphs (3) I support this with the following reasons. I will look into 2 explorations to confirm that…… I believe that I have found some solid reasons.
（一）主体段落主题句一 1、表语从句的写法 The/my main/most important/primary +fact/argument/point /first/strong/first and foremost +advantage/benefit/disadvantage + is that…… +reason/cause 2、状语前臵 First/firstly/first of all/in the first place/for one thing/on the one hand/first and foremost/to begin with （二）主体段落主题句二 1、主语从句的写法 It might also be noted/emphasized/stressed/addressed/highlighted/noticed that… 2、表语从句的写法 Another/a second/a further reason +why I agree with + the statement/attitude/the view/argument +is that…… + that deserves mentioning +that is worth mentioning +that cannot afford to be neglected +that must be taken into consideration/account What deserves/is worth mentioning is that…… 3、状语前臵 Second/secondly/next/besides/furthermore/moreover/in addition/in the second place/for another thing/what is more/more important （三）主体段落主题句三 1、直接陈述理由 The third and most important reason is that… Finally, the incomparable advantage is this view is that… Finally/third/thirdly/last but not the least/in addition/besides/furthermore/moreover 14
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2 反驳对方对自己的攻击 Some people say that…………...... In fact,/However, _______________________ We must admit that……………. However, ________________________________. It cannot be denied that…………. However, ________________________________.
（四）论据的写法 1、 exemplification （举例说明） Example: a specific fact, idea, person, or thing that is used to explain or support a general ： idea, or to show what is typical of a larger group （1）举例信号词： For example/For instance/and so forth/to name but a few Take (Consider)……as an example ……is a case in point such as/including/like The fact that……serves as a convincing example. To illustrate this point, there is an example that is quite persuasive. A case in point is that…… （2）实例: 例一：Topic sentence: In the first place, both small and big classes have their own advantages and disadvantages. Let’s take a small class for example. With a small number of students in one class, the classroom atmosphere would be relatively quiet and, therefore, it would be possible for students to concentrate on their learning. 例二：Topic sentence: Secondly, people also can acquire social skills on Internet. Communication on Internet has the same purpose as face-to-face communication has. For example, through Internet we can send greeting cards to our friends. 例三： Another example is the issue of information control with the media industry including TV networks and Internet that give easy access to information without discrimination to people’s age. 2、explanation（解释说明） ： （1）解释性用语： It means…… That is to say, …… In other words, …… To put it another way, …… By that I mean …… What is meant by this is that……/What I mean is that…… ……, by which I mean…… （2）实例 例一：It must also be realized that the whole world is keeping moving on. By that I mean it is impossible for people to 15
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return to something which has already gone. 例二： Excessively hard work means that people can not get rid of the fatigue of their work, even in their leisure time. This means that they can not enjoy a normal life. 例三：This has been driven by technological and scientific breakthroughs that are changing the whole way we view the world on almost daily basis. This means that change is not always a personal option, but an inescapable fact of life, and we need to constantly adapt to keep pace to it. 3、cause and effect（因果论证） （1）因果词 Cause——介词短语：because of/ as a result of/due to/ thanks to/owing to ——从属连词：because=in that、since=now that，for， as Result——从属连词：thus, hence, so, so…that…, such… that… ——副词短语：as a result, as a consequence, accordingly, in this way, therefore （2）实例: 例一：妇女不应该当兵，因为她们的体力不如男子。 Women should not join in the army because they are not as strong as men. 例二：Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new things are prompted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. 例三：Since globalization is accelerating and, actually, brings about some benefits, what we have to do is to work out some feasible approaches, such as, laying down some laws and regulations, to protect local industries and cultural heritage. 4、comparison and contrast（比较与对比） （1）对比词 相同点——similarly, likewise, in the same manner, in the same way 不同点——连词 but，while，whereas，whilst ——副词：instead/rather/conversely ——介词短语：on the contrary/in contrast/by contrast/on the other hand （2）实例 例一：Topic sentence: Plane is the fastest means of transportation. It used to take us about 10 hours to go to a place by car. Now, we can go there in no more than 1 hour by air. What used to take us 10 hours by car can now be covered within 1 hour by air. 例二： First, they can more broadly acquaint themselves with the society, deepen their understanding of the outside world, and thus better coordinate their objectives of learning with the needs of the society. In contrast, by immediate entrance to university they can not steer the direction of their study well and may display a poor combination of the theory with practice. 5、concession and refutation（让步与反驳） （1）让步词——从属连词：Although/Though/Even if/Even though/while/but ——副词：admittedly/ however/ nevertheless ——句子：it is true that……/it is often the case that……/it must be admitted that……/we must admit that…… （2）实例： 16
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例一：I think, although we should attach importance to the sense of competition because it is a kind of positive built-in mechanism of humans, we should put a higher price on the sense of cooperation because it is not only what constantly changing society needs, but is what distinguishes humans from most animals. 例二：But I think it is not equal to other illegal drugs which should be forbidden although it has so many drawbacks. 例三：Although this trend does make sense to some extent, music and sports play a more pivotal role in terms of job-hunting. 6、classification（分类）——直接上例子 For one thing, one's ability in logical and abstract thinking can be greatly developed when he or she is practicing math questions and it is clear that a logical mind will be preferred, whether it is in academic research or in businesses or one's daily life. For another, mathematics is the foundation for a variety of social sciences, such as economics, finance, even psychology. In that case, a good mastery of mathematics is vital for one's future success in the relevant fields. 7、假设法： （1）假设词 If, suppose, let us suppose, assume that… （2）实例： 例一：As for the research, all typical wild animals are our research objects as well as human. Obviously, if those animals disappeared from the earth, scientists will not go on their work, and those puzzles hovering in our minds will continue eternally. 例二：Suppose a visitor drives 1,000 miles, burning 100 liter gasoline and emitting 10 cubic meter carbon dioxide, this very passenger is totally responsible for such an environment problem. But to what extent should another passenger, who travels the same distance by air, take environment responsibility? If the airplane consumes 10,000 liter gasoline and produces 1000 cubic meter carbon dioxide and if altogether 300 passengers share the flight, then traveling by air causes less environmental damage.
（一）总结全文（论点＋各方观点）＋重述论点和理由＋提出建议/解决问题/深化意义（升华） （二）实例 例一：In the final analysis, I would concede that having fewer children does not come without any adverse effect（总结 全文）. Nevertheless, with proper parental guidance and direction, parents can cultivate their children’s sense of responsibility and filial piety to their parents（提出建议）. Therefore, on balance, I am convinced that having fewer children brings numerous benefits to their parents, which is not only beneficial to individuals but also the society as a whole（重申观点）. 例二： In conclusion, developing the public traffic is a useful approach to deal with these difficulties 观点） One possible way, if （ . not the best, is to taxi private cars heavily and use these revenues to provide citizens cheaper public traffic services （观点） . 例三： From what has been discussed above, it would be reasonable to believe that building a factory near the community would bring more trouble instead of benefits to the residents in the community.（观点重申） （三）结尾类型 原则：与开头段论点句保持呼应，但不能照抄论点局；简明扼要概括全文论点，不要添加新的观点和例子 1、转折式 17
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例一：In conclusion, I believe there are strong arguments for giving unemployed people access to the Internet. However, the case for providing mobile phones is less convincing, and it may be more cost-effective in the long run to invest in relevant training programmes. 例二：We cannot deny that a few computer games do have educational value, but considering the harm most computer games do to young children, something really should be done to keep our children away from the unwholesome ones. 2、推论式 例：Various means can be used to draw the families closer. The most important thing is the consciousness of the importance of closer family relations. In fact, family amity is one of the most essential factors in helping civilization forward. 3、两分式 例一：In the final analysis, fast food has some advantages and disadvantages. Conventional wisdom has it that we should eat fast food when we are busy with our work, but have a delicious home-cooked dinner on weekends or holidays. This will not only save our time, but contribute to our health and family amity as well. 例二：In conclusion, I think city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don’t mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside. 4、让步式 例一：In conclusion, while any anxiety about going overseas for university study is certainly understandable, it is important to remember that the benefits offered by the experience make it well worthwhile. 例二：In conclusion, although there are many challenges when leaving home for a new city or country, planning in advance can transform an ordeal into an adventure! 5、反诘式 例一：Some people do not agree with the raising of pets in large cities. They believe pets will make the city untidy and noisy. However, this situation can be easily avoided by effective control. If pets can be beneficial to us in many ways, why should we refuse them? 例二：An open China has realized the importance of business. Why should we give up this opportunity of relying less on agriculture? It is the right time for us to make a historic choice. 6、名言式 例一：In fact, not only do I prefer to have different kinds of friends but also I prefer to have as many as possible. The English proverb which says ?two heads are better than one?can be used a sound proof for this point. 例二： From the above discussion, I have to admit that for every plus there is a minus. However, personally I side with the former point of view, because I believe in the old saying: nothing venture, nothing gain. 7、展望式 例一：To sum up I have to admit that I cannot find a really good solution for this problem. All models have advantages and disadvantages. Certainly we have to think about this topic much more in the future. 例二：Humans will always dream of breaking the barriers of knowledge, of mastering nature and exploring the universe, but on this long, mysterious and unpredictable path, caution, balance and a desire to defend the human beings’ right to live a healthy and safe life in a healthy and sound environment are a must.
Helen Yjx, GE
（一）三种句子类型 1、简单句——简单、明确，使用泛滥像 rap 2、并列句——S+V…, and/but/or +S+V… 3、复合句——主句 从属连词+从句 （二）五大句式结构 1、S+V（主语+不及物动词） 2、S+LV+SC（主语+系动词+主语补足语） 3、S+V+O（主语+及物动词+宾语） 4、S+V+O2+O1=S+V+O1+Prep.+O2（主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语=主语+谓语+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语） 5、S+V+O+OC（主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语） （三）六种分句类型 1、名词性分句： （1）主语从句 （2）表语从句 （3）宾语从句 （4）同位语从句 2、形容词性分句 （5）定语从句 3、副词性分句 （6）状语从句 （四）八大句子成分 1、主语：主语从句作主语，it 作形式主语： (1) It is +名词/形容词/动词的被动语态+that……，如： It is often the case/the fact/a well-known fact/a popular (common) belief that…… It seems that……/It goes without saying that…… It is (generally/widely/extensively/universally/commonly) said/believed/reported/ accepted/announced/acknowledged estimated/that…… It is must be admitted/stressed out that……/It cannot be denied/can be foreseen that…… It is obvious/generally arguable/ harmful/ as clear as crystal that…… (2) 不定式作主语，it 作形式主语 It is +adj./n. (for sb.) to do sth. It is almost impossible to talk of our vivid earth without mentioning the significant roles played by various wild animals. It is not efficient for the commuters to use their private cars to and back from their workplaces. It is hard to imagine the limited distribution provided by the criminal underworld could compete with this tragic figure. 2、谓语：使用时，应注意其时态、语态和语气。如： In this competitive society, employment experience and abundant information have become very important features of ordinary students’future. Many holders of a high school diploma are taught that the subjects are too academic. 19
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It is suggested that the government should take measures as soon as possible to tackle growing traffic. 3、表语：也称之为主补，跟在系动词后面。注意表语从句： The main reason is that tobacco is a silent killer to smokers. Another reason is that more and more young people are under 18 years old who smoke cigarette have been blinded by
the deceit of tobacconists.
For instance, in Islamic countries, their belief is that the people can’t eat pork; they think that pig is not a symbol of
spotlessness and pig will sully their holy belief.
表语从句的句型有： (1) The first/second/third/Another + cause/solution/reason/point to be considered/element/measure to be taken/possible reason/step/ thing to be mentioned/last thing to be shown is (that……) (2) That is why…… (3) Why…is that…… (4) A hot topic discussed by people is whether… (5) A is to B what C is to D/A is to B as C is to D 4、宾语：表示动作行为所作用的对象，跟在及物动词之后。雅思常用宾语句型： (1)主动句型：Some people admit/think/conclude/assert/(do strongly) believe/hold/point out/maintain/ argue/deem
Some people take it for granted that…… (2) 被动句型：Some people are (fully/firmly) convinced that…… 5、定语：放在名词的前面或者名词的后面，用以修饰名词的即为定语。最常见的定语是形容词，其次还有动名词、不 定式和定语从句（这是雅思写作中用以拓展句子的重点句型） 。 6、状语：可以用来修饰形容词、副词、动词或者整个句子。可以由个中不同的结构来担当。状语种类多达十一种：时 间、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式、条件、让步、比较、伴随、评注。在雅思写作中最常用来状语的有副词、状语从 句、状语从句省略结构、动词不定式、分词。 (1) 副词：Honestly, it is hard for me to give a yes-no answer to this question. (2) 状语从句：Where there is an open mind, there will always be frontier. (3) 状语从句省略结构：If possible, measures should be taken by government to tackle house problems. (4) to do：To solve this problem, people put up forward various solutions. (5) -ing：Technology is developing by leaps and bounds, making it possible for people to live better than ever before. (6) -ed：Being punished severely, the criminals will hesitate before committing crimes next time. 7、同位语：跟在名词的后面，解释说明该名词。一般由名词短语或者 that 同位语从句来充当。 Some people hold the opinion that the Internet is a curse. Museums play a role of education for the simple reason that they provide people with a good opportunity to have a
deeper understanding of their own country's tradition and cultures.
University students should bear total expenses for their tuition on the generalization that university students usually earn
much more than people without a degree.
8、补语：主语补足语（补充说明主语的情况，又称表语） ；宾语补足语（补充说明宾语的情况）在雅思写作中常做宾语 补足语的有名词、形容词、分词和动词不定式。 (1) To do: Advertisements often urge people to buy goods they do not need. (2) -ing: They find the wild animals grazing on the grassland. 20
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(3) -ed: A host of researchers realized the forests logged. (4) 形容词：Many people find this experience awful.
（一）图标类型的表达： The (bar/line/pie/fan) chart/graph/table/flow chart/map/diagram （二）数据、信息的表达： The figures/statistics/data/information… （三）表达/阐述的动词表达： shows/indicates/illustrates/describes/gives/presents/depicts/reveals （四）人数、比例、数据的表达 the number / amount/ quantity/ percentage/ proportion of information about/data on/figures /statistics
According to the According to the number shown in the As is shown in the As can be seen from the It can be seen from the We learn from the We can see from the It is clear/apparent from the As the shows/indicates illustrates/ reveals describes that+总概括句子 pie chart table/chart diagram graph/line chart figures that+总概括句子 +总概括句子
（一）表示上升的 adv. + v.词 1、主语：The number of/The figure of/The percentage of/The proportion of 副词： （小幅地gently/steadily/ stably consistently/continually/gradually/slowly/comparatively/slowly/ slightly）/（大 幅 地 suddenly/rapidly/quickly/dramatically/significantly/sharply/steeply/smoothly/ drastically/substantially ） / （ 最 大 maximally）/（最小minimally） 上升动词：ascend/aggrandize/climb/grow/improve/increase/jump/mount/rise/go up/take off 2、本身表示大幅上升的动词：rocket/soar/shoot up/skyrocket/ （二）表示上升的adj. + n.词 1、主语：There be/时间主语+see/witness/undergo/experience 形 容 词 ： （ 大 幅 度 的 abrupt/sudden/rapid/considerable/substantial/marked/quick/dramatic/drastic sharp/significant/steep）（小幅度的moderate/consistent/continual/steady/stable/gradual/slow/small /slight 21
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上升名词：increase/jump/rise/growth/improvement/upturn/surge/upsurge/upward/trend/ 在……方面：in the number of sth/in the percentage of/in the profit of sth 导入数据： from…to…. between…and… for one month. for a period of one month. during the next month during the period from…to… during the 25-year period from…to… over the next month. over the period from…to… over the period between …and… over the 5-year period between …and. throughout the period in 1999= in the year 1999 in the next two decades in around 1999 by 1999=by the year 1999 until 2004 after/before 2004
（一）下降/减少： come down/decrease/decline/go down/drop/dip/diminish/dwindle/fall/fall off/reduce/shrink/sink/ reduce /slide （二）巨幅减少： collapse/crash/plummet/plunge/slump/slump
from … to …/between… and…/for +时间段/for a period of+时间段/over the next …/during the next …/over the period from…to…/over the …-week/month/year period/during the -week/month/year period
, with+名词+v.-ing… , at（数据）… …( ) …by上升了…… …to上升到…… …from…to… , falling/increasing from+时间一+数值一… to+时间二+数值二… , making up …%.占……比例。/, accounting for 20%. , amounting to …达到……. , which falls/increase +时间一+数值一… to+时间二+数值二… 22
Helen Yjx, GE
, which is +数值/比例. , which makes up 20%.占……比例。/, which constitutes 20%. / , which account for 20%. 或插入语 注：数据为估计数据时，需使用about, nearly, almost, approximately, over, up to, a bit over, around, somewhere about 等。 数据为准确值时，可用precisely, exactly, sharply等加强语气。）
（一）表示在底部：reach a low point，bottom out，reach the bottom，reach the rock，hit a trough （二）表示在顶部：reach a peak，peak，top out，reach the highest point/ the top/ the summit/ the most，peak in/at， reach the zenith （三）flatten out(下降或升高后变平), level off, bottom out，flatten out(下降或升高后变平) （四）上下波动：fluctuated，varied，rose and fell （五）复苏（下降后再上升）：recover，bounce back
六、表示上升、下降的 5 个变通句型
（一）The percentage of…increases sharply between …and…, going up from...to…. （二）There is a gradual increase in the number of ….over the period of one month. （三）The number/percentage shows an upward / downward trend from….to….. （四）A sharp increase can be found in the number/percentage of , from …to… （五）The year of 1999 witnesses a steady fall in the amount of ….
（一）主语：The number of (sth)/The percentage of 系动词：remained/maintained/stayed/flatten out(下降或升高后变平)+表语：steady/stable/constant 谓语：did not change/stabilize/stagnate/levelled off/stayed at the same level/was similar to/stayed the same/ unchanged/maintain the same level/leveled out 数值：at +…… There was little/hardly any/no change in the number of sth 时间：between … and …./over the period between …and…/over the 25-year period between …and. during the 25-year period from…to…/for one month/for a period of one month./over/during the next month.
（一）最高和最低 1、A was the most popular/dominant/main + n , with + 数据+时间.. = A + 动词/被动语态/serves as (is used as) the main n (+ 数据) +时间. = The largest quantity of n + 动词/被动语态from A + 数据+时间. = The proportion of n in A, the highest of all, + 动词+ 数据+时间. =A+ 动词/被动语态 in the largest quantity, +数据+时间. 2、主语：The monthly profit/The figures/The situation/The number/The percentage 谓语：peaked 最高点/ reached a peak/a high point/ bottomed out 最低点/ reached the bottom/a low point + at 数 值+时间 （二）A 比B 多/少 1、A + 动词/被动语态 + far/ much more/ less than + B 23
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2、The percentage of A is + …more/less than that of B. 3、There are more/less A than B （三）A 和B 相等 A has/The percentage of A is/A 动词/被动语态 + almost/nearly/about/approximately + as many (employees) as/as much (space) as/as high as/ the same number/proportion/amount +B/ of as B. （四）A 是B 的几分之几或几倍 1、A has/The percentage of A is/A 动词/被动语态 + almost/nearly/about/approximately/just over exactly/precisely + a/one quarter of/half of/a third of/3 quarters of + the (total) number of employees. 2、A has/The percentage of A is/A 动词/被动语态 + almost/nearly/about/approximately/just over exactly/precisely + a quarter/half/quarters/twice/three times + as many(employees)/as much + as B （五）A 比B 多几倍 A has/The percentage of A is/A 动词/被动语态 + almost/nearly/about/approximately/just over exactly/ precisely + twice/three times/four times + more (employees) than B/higher/larger than B
（一）介词短语 1. The consumption of fish also decline but slightly to just below 50 grams. 2. Lamb and chicken were eaten in the quantities of 5 grams. 3. The consumption of fish decline by 50 grams. 4. The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France. 5. Hydro continued to be another significant source, supplying/producing approximately 20%, at 25 units. 6. In 1979，beef was by far the most popular of these food, with about 225 grams per person per week. 7. The reminding units were produced largely from oil and nuclear power ( 20 units and 25 units respectively), with hydro contributing 5 units. （二）括号 8. The remainder was produced from natural gas, hydro power (each producing 25 units) and oil (which produce only 10 units). 9. Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities, while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams.) （三）分词作状语 10. The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France. 11. The greatest amount of water was consumed in the industrial sector, accounting for 70%. 12. The largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose, whereas hydro continued to be another significant source, supplying approximately 20%. （四）非限制性定语从句 13. The units of electricity doubled, which rose from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France. 14. The greatest amount of water was consumed in the industrial sector, which account for 70%. （五）对象描述变换方法 1. Beef was the most popular of these foods. Beef was consumed as the most popular food. Beef were eaten in similar quantities of 5 grams. The consumption of beef fell dramatically to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams respectively. 24
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2. American used coal as the main electricity source for 25%. Coal was used as the most popular source. 3. The largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose. Water used in the industrial sector also increased, but the consumption was minimal until 1999. 4. Nearly 80% students under 26 years old study for their career reason. There are only 10% of students studying out of interest. The number of those who study for career purpose is 4%. 5. 90% of those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men. Men holding postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered than females. Men with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered than females. 6. Britain has spent most heavily on the ranged of goods. Britain’s spending is considerable higher than that of other country. Germany is the lowest spender.
（一）复合句——长短句结合 1、适合写短句的地方： 2、适合写长句的地方： （二）状语前臵（考试加分句式） 1、Living in poverty, these people do not even have money to buy enough food. = Because they live in poverty, these people do not even have money to buy enough food 2、Deeply influenced by excessively violence and pornography on the internet, some teenagers tend to go astray.== As they deeply influenced by excessively violence and pornography on the internet, some teenagers tend to go astray. 3、In terms of attitude, a good teacher should be highly motivated and patient. 4、Just like the movies stars, they live extravagant lifestyles with huge houses and cars. 5、 Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new things are promoted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. 6、Instead of wasting our time, creative advertisements can afford us diverse amusements, thereby brightening up our lives. 7、Most importantly, the government should make sure that citizens can improve their lives. 8、To alleviate traffic jams, the government should encourage people to take the subway. 9、Without an IELTS score, one can not get a visa from the embassy. 10、Throughout the century, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purposes. （三）分词做定语 等同于定语从句 1. Chicken consumed by American is two times as much as that of Britain. = 2. People living here intend to change the living surroundings. = （四）强调句 It is ….that/who…. 改写强调句型
1、The interaction of the two shapes a person’s personality and dictates how personality develops. 25
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2、The traditions in Bejing attract many foreign tourist.
3、The waste gases released by cars and factories pollute the environment.
（五）被动语态——主被动交替 1、Proper measures must be taken to limit the umber of foreign tourists and great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism. 2、Every means should be tried to protect the environment on which people live. （六）倒装句——框中部分臵于句首，句子改成倒装句 1、The parents should not only spend time on their children, they should also communicate with them.
2、We can never/on no account/by no means/in no way lose sight of the significance of education.
3、The government should not only pay much attention to the protection of our environment, but also every residents living in this area should be absolutely aware of the importance of the preservation of our natural surroundings.
4、One can thoroughly realize his value and capability only by building up one’s confidence and offering one a sense of achievement.
5、Only when proper measures are taken and great efforts are made, can we gradually prevent crimes from occurring . 6、On no account should we cut down the outturn（产量降低）. （七）虚拟语气 1、This is true, and we will be able predict the behavior and character of a person from the moment they were born.改成 与事实相反的条件句
2、The schools would seem very impersonal if all the computers were to replace human teachers. 省略 if，改成倒装
（八）插入语——让你的句子特立独行 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Computer, an indispensable part in our life, has brought us great conveniences. College students, lacking social experience, are easily cheated. I think, therefore, that governments need to raise the public awareness. Universities, when it is functioning well, should offer both theoretical knowledge as well as professional training. So overall, I believe that, attending school from a young age is good for most children.
Helen Yjx, GE
1. benefit from 从……当中获益
例句：Many children who suffer from this illness will benefit from the new treatment(治疗).【主语一般为人，宾 语一般为物】 详解：这个句型与is beneficial to …(对……有益)的主语和宾语正好相反。有时还可以把它们放在文章不同位臵交替使 用，来实现句式的多样化。 例句：Confucius' thought is beneficial to mankind. 孔子的思想有益于全人类。 例句：However, these habits are beneficial to my body.不过这些习惯是否有益于我身体。
2. Invest in 对……投资
例句：Let's invest in our people without leaving them a mountain of debt. 近义词汇：subsidize/sponsor/allocate to 反义句型：withdraw/suspend the funding of…中止对……的投资 例句：That money is used to subsidize /sponsor /allocate everything else. 例句：Japan withdrew the funding of Africa.
3. Promote the development of…促进……的发展
例句：This championships will surely promote the development of basketball. 详解：近义句型：facilitate the development of…/is a main contributor to…. 例句：Soil erosion is a main contributor to water pollution.
4. Boost efficiency / productivity 提高效率/生产率
例句： The language can simplify projects, reduce costs and boost efficiency. 近义句型： enhance efficiency / productivity 例句： We should constantly improve our own skills, in order to enhance efficiency. 我们应该不断提高自身技术水平，以提高工作效率。
5. Play a vital role in 在中起关键作用
例句：Farmers play a vital role in China. 农民在中国发挥关键作用。 详解：近义句型：play a crucial/essential role in… 例句：The government plays a crucial role in the housing market. 政府在房地产市场扮演重要角色。
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6. Enrich one’s social/academic/professional experience 丰富……的社会的/学术的/职业的经历
例句：Working for a period before going to university can greatly enrich students’ social experience and make them more capable in university. 上大学之前工作一段时间的话，能够很大程度上丰富学生们的社会经历，也能使他 们在大学里更加有作为。 详解：近义句型：expand one’s outlook/vision 开阔某人的视野（真的不建议大家再频繁使用broaden one’s vision那 个早已被用滥的句型了。 ） 反义句型：limit/restrict one’s vision限制某人的视野 例句：It will limit your vision if you know nothing about a second language. 不懂第二外语会限制你的视野。
7.Keep society safe and stable 保持社会稳定
例句：Harmony keeps society safe and stable while conflict disturbs social order. 和谐能保持社会稳定而冲突则扰乱社会秩序。 详解：近义句型：maintain social stability 例句：We strive to maintain social stability. 我们努力维护社会稳定。
8. have a duty / obligation to do…有责任做……
例句：We have a duty to help the poor. 我们有义务去帮助穷人。 近义句型：be obligated to do sth. / be accountable for 反义句型：be exempt from doing sth.被免除某种责任，比如 paying taxes 例句：你被免除了缴税的责任。You are exempt from paying taxes.
9. relax their bodies and ease their minds 让人放松身心
例句：Children need time to relax their bodies and ease their minds. 孩子们需要时间来放松身心。 近义句型：afford (提供给) sb. entertainment and pleasure 比较：recreational activities/activities 休闲活动 例句：The school offers many recreational activities for the students.该校为学生提供了很多?娱乐?活动。
10. be based on…基于……
例句：Friendship should be based on (upon) mutual respect.友谊是基于彼此的尊重。 近义句型：lay the foundation for…/lay the groundwork for…为……打好基础 例句：We can lay the foundation for long-term economic growth in both of our countries. 我们能够为我们两国长期的经济增长奠定基础。 28
Helen Yjx, GE
11. generate employment opportunities 创造就业机会
例句：This company generated many employment opportunities for Beijing. 这个公司为北京市创造了很多就业机会。 近义句型: stimulate the job market 反义句型：reduce employment opportunities The economic crisis reduced employment opportunities.经济危机减少了就业机会。
12. be less time-consuming and more economical 省钱又省时间的
例句：Advertising makes our shopping experience less time-consuming and more economical. 广告让我们的购物体验更省时省钱。 近义句型：be more efficient and cost-effective 例句：我们应该教育员工更有效，有成本效益的进行工作。 We should educate our workers to be more efficient and cost-effective.
13. relieve one’s academic/financial/psychological burden 减轻某人的学业、经济、心理负担
例句：Part-time jobs help students to relieve their financial burdens. 兼职工作帮助学生们减轻经济负担。 类似用法：relieve poverty/pain/traffic congestion 减轻贫困/痛苦/交通阻塞
例句：This kind of medicine can relieve patient’s pain.这种药物能够减轻病人的痛苦。
14. fulfill/exert one’s potential 发挥人的潜力
例句：老师应该发挥每位学生的潜力。 The teacher should fulfill every student’s potential. 近义句型：achieve one’s potential 反义句型：restrict one’s potential限制某人发挥潜力 例句：他们限制自己发挥潜力。They restrict themselves’ potential.
15. Remove the barrier for 为（发展，交流等）消除障碍
例句： Machine translation has removed the barrier for communication between people who do not share the same language.机器翻译为讲不同语言的人之间的交流消除了障碍。 反义句型be an obstacle to 对什么造成阻碍 例句：That is the greatest obstacle to authority. 这是对权威的最大障碍。 29
Helen Yjx, GE
16. promote the cultural communication and interaction between…and…促进……和……之间的文化交流与互动
例句：Computers can promote the cultural communication and interaction between Chinese and Europeans. 电脑 能够促进中国人民与欧洲人民之间的文化交流与互动。 近义句型：contribute towards the mutual understanding between… and …促进相互了解 这个会议促进了中国与英国之间的相互了解。 例句：This meeting contributes towards the mutual understanding between China and England.
17. curb the proliferation of 控制（犯罪，污染，媒体的有害内容等）的扩散
例句：The government should take measures to curb the proliferation of pollution/mass destruction weapons. 政 府应该采取措施控制污染/大规模杀伤武器的扩散。 近义句型：ban/prohibit /eliminate sth. 消灭某事 我们的目标是?消灭?贫困。例句：Our goal is to eliminate poverty. 18.Raise people’s awareness of 提高人们的 某种意识 例句：The media can raise people’s awareness of saving the water. 媒体可以提高人们的节水意识。 近义句型：diffuse knowledge about…传播某方面的知识 收音机正在传播节电的知识。例句：The radio is diffusing knowledge about saving the electricity.
19. Has the inherent advantage of 有某方面的内在优势
例句：He has the inherent advantage of running. 他在跑步方面有内在优势。 近义句型：be superior to…比…更有优势的 反义句型：be inferior to…不如…的， never manage to reach a comparable level 不能相提并论 这个国家的教育水平不能与中国的相提并论。 This country’s education level never manages to reach a comparable level of China’s. ? 倒退类（用来论证disadvantage负面的方面）
20. live in poverty/misery 生活在贫穷/困苦中
例句：Living in poverty, the children are all in poor health. 生活在贫困中，这些孩子身体都很差。 近义句型：lead a miserable life 例句：那个国家的人民都生活在困苦之中。That country’s people are all leading a miserable life.
Helen Yjx, GE
21. drive up the crime rate 导致犯罪率上升
The appearance of violence films drove up the crime rate. 暴力电影的出现导致犯罪率上升。 反义句型：lower the crime rate 例句：法律知识的传播减少了犯罪率。The spread of legal knowledge lowered the crime rate.
22. the competition is increasingly stiff 竞争越来越激烈
例句：国家间的经济竞争越来越激烈。The economic competition between countries is increasingly stiff. 近义句型：be increasingly competitive 例句：在许多州，法官选举的竞争不断加剧。 In many states, elections for judges are increasingly competitive.
23. to avoid …, people should… 为了避免……，人们应该……
例句：为了避免鱼类的死亡，人们应该保护水资源。 To avoid the death of fishes, people should protect the water resources. 近义句型：People should … so as to prevent …为了避免。。 。，人们应该。。 。 例句：为了避免地球变得越来越暖，人们应该注意保护环境。 People should pay attention to protect the environment so as to prevent the earth from becoming warmer and warmer.
24. widen the gap between A and B 加大 A 与 B 之间的差距
例句：科技的发展加大了中国与非洲之间的差距。 The development of technology widened the gap between China and Africa. 反义句型：narrow the gap between… 例句：They planed to narrow the gap between imports and exports. 他们计划缩小进出口的差额。
25. stem from （某种坏现象）起源于……
例句：Generally speaking, children’s bad behavior stems from imitating their parents. 通常来讲，孩子们的坏习惯都起源于模仿他们的父母。 造句：许多问题都起源于落后的经济。Many problems stem from the backward economic.
26. pose a threat to…对……构成威胁
例句：日本的军事力量对朝鲜构成了威胁。Japan’s military force posed a threat to North Korea. 31
Helen Yjx, GE
造句：英语的普及对中文的纯洁性构成了威胁。The spread of English posed a threat to the purity of Chinese.
27. stifle creativity/imagination(扼杀创造力/想象力)
例句: The traditional teaching methods seriously stifled students’ creativity. 传统的教学方法严重地扼杀了学生们的创造力。 他们希望新规则不会压制创意。 They hope the new rules will not stifle creativity.
28. find … monotonous and unmotivating 发现某事物很单调而且无法给人动力
例句：Young students tend to（倾向于）find traditional schooling(学校教育) monotonous and unmotivating. 年轻 的学生们倾向于认为传统的学校教育很单调而且无法给人动力。 反义句型：find…highly stimulating发现某事物很能激发兴趣 I find playing chess(下棋) highly stimulating.我发现下棋很能激发兴趣。
29. diminish one’s leisure time 减少某人的休闲时间
他的老板让他加班，减少了他的休闲时间。 His boss told him to work overtime which diminished his leisure time. 对比：drive away one’s loneliness(某种娱乐)驱散某人的寂寞 例句：Playing with the parents can drive away children’s loneliness. 与父母玩耍可以驱散孩子们的寂寞。
30. There is a definite link between A and B A 和 B 之间有密切联系
例句：肥胖和疾病之间有密切联系。 There is a definite link between fatness and illness. 反义句型：There is no correlation between A and B A和B 之间不存在任何关联
例句：There is no correlation between wealth and health. 财富和健康之间不存在任何关联。 ? 31. spin out of control 失去控制
The 2008 Wall Street financial crisis span out of control and snowballed over to other countries in the world. 2008 年美国华尔街警容危机失去控制，蔓延到世界其他国家。 反义短语：keep …under tight control 对……严加控制 ? 32. cause tension and conflicts between A and B. 在 A 和 B 之间产生紧张和冲突
Cultural differences between the tourists and local residents may cause tension and conflicts between them. 反义短语：ease tension and conflicts between A and B: International sports events are essential in easing international tensions. 32
Helen Yjx, GE
33. be overly dependent upon… 对……过于依赖
Technology has made individuals overly dependent upon it, which has led to more sedentary lifestyle and less face-to-face communication. 反义短语：be independent of…不依赖于某事 ? 34. have a detrimental/negative influence upon 对……有负面影响﹥be harmful to…
Apparently, long-distance flights have a detrimental/negative influence upon the environment, even though they are by far the most efficient way of traveling. 近义句型：undermine sth; put…at risk; be damaging to… ? 35. the population is booming/exploding/swelling 人口激增
Whereas the population has been booming in many Asian countries, the birth rate in some European countries remains consistently low. 反义句型：curb the population explosion 控制人口爆炸 ? 36. is markedly incompatible with 与……不协调
The design of modern building often turns out to be markedly incompatible with historical surroundings in terms of materials, forms and colors. 近义句型：be incongruous with… 反义句型：be consistent with; co-exist Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both single sex and mixed schools coexist.
? 前进类（用来论证好的方面） 1. profit from
People the world over can profit from the advancement in motorized flight. ? ★2. A is an indispensable/integral part of B.
Advertising has become an indispensable part of our lives and it has been exerting profound influence on the way we live, work, play and learn.
★★3. something plays a pivotal/essential/imperative/crucial/core role in…
It is universally acknowledged that education plays a pivotal role in individual success. ? ★★4. enable somebody to do something
Cultural assimilation enables newly-arrived immigrants to get ahead in the new society successfully. ? 5. get accustomed to something
New immigrants must get accustomed to the local culture to succeed.
6. Someone can utilize/employ something
In this day and age, many individuals can utilize the Internet via computers or mobile phones. ? ★7. something is in the best interests of someone (最符合某人的利益)
Preserving the endangered animals is in the best interests of humanity. 33
Helen Yjx, GE
8. contribute to…
Various factors contributed to his downfall Students should not only learn academic knowledge but also do volunteer work in communities, thereby making contributions to their cities. ? 9. something consolidates its status as the …
English has been consolidating its status as the dominant language in the world. ? 10. strike/maintain/keep a balance/an equilibrium between A and B 在 A 和 B 件保持平衡
Due to the increasing stress and the rising demand for their time at work, most married adults need learn to strike/maintain/keep a balance/an equilibrium between their work and their family. 反义短语：lose/upset/disturb the balance between…and … ? 11. assume/shoulder the responsibility for…承担起……的责任
Educators should assume/shoulder the responsibility for ensuring that their students don ’ t go astray academically, psychologically or socially. 反义短语：shirk responsibility/duty
1. …is attended/accompanied by … (伴随着)
The staggering advancement of technology is attended by severe pollution of the ecosystem. ? 2. The more…the more…
The more vehicles on the roads; the more traffic congestion to occur.
★3. A can be attributed to B
The proliferation of traffic accidents can be in large measure attributed to the traffic law not being stringent\strict enough.
★4. be afflicted with
In present-day society, a host of countries are afflicted with chronic poverty. ? 5. deprive someone of something
Modern cities deprive city-dwellers of fresh air and the comfortable pace of life.
6. something impels somebody to do …
Peer pressure often impels youngsters to spend excessively on fancy clothes and accessories （饰品）. ? ★7. A has rendered B + 形容词或者名词 A 让 B 变成了（不好的状况）
We must ensure that technological innovations will not render us slaves to high technology. The fast-paced way of life has rendered many people alienated from one another. 8. A recent study conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences revealed that …(如果是教育问题用 UNESCO,如果犯罪问题可以用 the Chinese Ministry of Justice , 交通问题可以用 the Chinese Ministry of Transportation,建筑问题可以用 the Chinese Ministry of Construction,环境问题可以用 HSUS and Greenpeace ) A recent study conducted by HSUS and Greenpeace suggested that there were over one million mammals（哺乳 动物） in lab cages（笼子） today. 一个数据就说明了人类现在虐待动物的情况有多么严重。当然，请注意这里的数 34
Helen Yjx, GE
9. be addicted to/preoccupied with something 对……上瘾
In present-day society, many individuals are addicted to / preoccupied with various forms of gambling.
10. something is the root cause of…
The population explosion is the root cause of water scarcity. ★★11. be confronted with something in contemporary society , we are confronted with a plethora（过剩） of violent and pornographic TV shows. ? ★★12. pose a threat to …
In the contemporary society, the proliferation of non-biodegradable （不可降解的） rubbish poses a threat to humanity. ? 13. be inundated/flooded with something （充斥着）
The media are inundated with detailed crime coverage. ? 14. If…, something will ensue.如果……， （不好的结果）会产生
If parents neglect their offspring, lack of discipline and respect will ensue.
15. With the incidence（发生率）of…hovering at high levels, many have become disturbed and alarmed.
With the incidence of driving offenses hovering at high levels, many have become disturbed and alarmed. ? ★★16. something is unwarranted/unjustified 做……是不合理的（不可接受的）
Experimenting upon lab animals without trying to alleviate their pain is unwarranted. ? 17. at the expense/cost of…
We should not develop economy at the expense of the environment.
18. be afflicted/plagued with…=suffer from 遭受、困扰
A host of African countries are being afflicted with chronic poverty and lasting wars.
1. support (支持)/ oppose（反对） …on the grounds that…以……为理由支持或反对……
=support/oppose sb/sth on the basis of… Some oppose animal experimentation on the grounds that it is barbarous and inhumane.
2. exert beneficial / detrimental / profound/far-reaching influence on something.
In this day and age, globalization is exerting profound impact on the way we work, live, play and learn. ? 3. A prevail over / outweigh / outbalance B.
The advantages of punishment for driving offenders prevail over its disadvantages. ? 4. A create / bring about / generate / breed / engender / spawn / induce B. A 产生 B 这个结果。
Technological innovations have brought about profound changes to the political, economic and cultural fields. ? 5. A is a key determinant of B. A 是 B 的决定因素
In an individual’s career, tenacity（不屈不挠） is a key determinant of success. ? ★6. It is manifest that…或者 It is universally acknowledged that… Undeniably,..
It is manifest that globalization can bring numerous benefits to the lives of people in the Third-World countries. 35
Helen Yjx, GE
7. It is standard/common practice for someone to do something 某人通常会……
In contemporary China, it is standard practice for Chinese youths to choose Hollywood blockbusters over domestic films. ? 8. A is best characterized by …=A is best characteristic of… A 具有……的特征
A fine journalist is best characterized by discipline, determination and penetrating observations. ? 9. A constitutes/is composed of…（由…所组成）
Animal experimentation, in some cases, constitutes cruel abuse of test animals. ? ★10. someone would be well-advised to do something （做…事情是对的）
Parents would be well-advised if they spend more time with their offspring. ? 11. In all likelihood, 很可能……
In all likelihood, these decisions would be made by government officials who tend to have wrong understanding of the problems. ? 12. The trend is not restricted/limited/confined to… 某现象并不仅仅局限于……
The trend is not restricted/limited/confined to wealthy students who have money to do this, but is also evident among poorer students.
★★1. give priority to something 把……放在优先位置
The government should give priority to the optimization(最优化)of its financial resources. ? 2. dedicate time/money/energy/effort to B 把……花在……上
The government should dedicate more money to the alleviation of chronic poverty. ? 3. be likely to fall prey to / be vulnerable to(很易于….)
Without proper parental guidance, children are very vulnerable to the violent or pornographic content on TV shows.
4. something should be condemned rather than condoned.
Indiscriminate(不加区别的) copying of traditional architectural style today should be condemned rather than condoned. ? 5. it is imperative / crucial / key / essential that…或者 something is of paramount / overriding importance.
To the newly-arrived immigrants, it is imperative that they adapt to the local culture promptly(及时的).
6. something requires / necessitates / calls for …
The severe ecological problem requires / necessitates / calls for joint effort of all the nations on the globe.
7. distinguish between A and B
Many youngsters lack the capacity to distinguish between right and wrong. 8. take…into consideration 把……考虑在内 The circumstances of an individual crime, and the motivation for committing it, should always be taken into consideration on the punishment. ? 9. …are not mutually exclusive/compatible with each other 两者并不相互排斥 36
Helen Yjx, GE
Good training and natural talent are not mutually exclusive.
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