英语语言学教程(胡壮麟版)

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英语语言学教程(胡壮麟版)
Chapter one. Invitation to Linguistic. 1. What is language? “Language is system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. It is a system, since linguistic elements are arranged systematically, rather than randomly. Arbitrary, in the sense that there is usually no intrinsic connection between a work (like “book”) and the object it refers to. This explains and is explained by the fact that different languages have different “books”: “book” in English, “livre” in French, “shu” in Chinese. It is symbolic, because words are associated with objects, actions, ideas etc. by nothing but convention. Namely, people use the sounds or vocal forms to symbolize what they wish to refer to. It is vocal, because sound or speech is the primary medium for all human languages. Writing systems came much later than the spoken forms. The fact that small children learn and can only learn to speak (and listen) before they write (and read) also indicates that language is primarily vocal, rather than written. The term “human” in the definition is meant to specify that language is human specific. 2. Design Features of Language. “Design features” here refer to the defining properties of human language that tell the difference between human language and any system of animal communication. They are arbitrariness, duality, productivity, displacement, cultural transmission and interchangeability
(1) Arbitrariness: By “arbitrariness”, we mean there is no logical connection between meanings and sounds.
(2) Duality: The property of having two levels of structures (phonological and grammatical), units of the primary level being composed of elements of the secondary level and each level having its own principles of organization.
(3) Productivity: Productivity refers to the ability to the ability to construct and understand an indefinitely large number of sentences in one’s native language, including those that has never heard before, but that are appropriate to the speaking situation. The property that enables native speakers to construct and understand an indefinitely large number of utterances, including utterances that they have never previously encountered.
(4) Displacement: “Displacement”, as one of the design features of the human language, refers to the fact that one can talk about things that are not present, as easily as he does things present. In other words, one can refer to real and unreal things, things of the past, of the present, of the future. Language itself can be talked about too.
(5) Cultural transmission: This means that language is not biologically transmitted from generation to generation, but that the details of the linguistic system must be learned anew by each speaker.
(6) Interchangeability: Interchangeability means that any human being can be both a producer and a receiver of messages.
3. Functions of Language. Language has at least seven functions: phatic, directive, Informative, interrogative, expressive, evocative and performative.
(1) Phatic function: The “phatic function” refers to language being used for setting up a certain atmosphere or maintaining social contacts (rather than for exchanging information or ideas). Greetings, farewells, and comments on the weather in English and on clothing in Chinese all serve this function.
(2) Directive function: The “directive function” means that language may be used to get the hearer
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to do something. Most imperative sentences perform this function, e. g., “Tell me the result when you finish.” (3) Informative function: Language serves an “informational function” when used to tell something, characterized by the use of declarative sentences. Informative statements are often labeled as true (truth) or false (falsehood). (4) Interrogative function: When language is used to obtain information, it serves an “interrogative function”. This includes all questions that expect replies, statements, imperatives etc. (5) Expressive function: The “expressive function” is the use of language to reveal something about the feelings or attitudes of the speaker. (6) Evocative function: The “evocative function” is the use of language to create certain feelings in the hearer. Its aim is, for example, to amuse, startle, antagonize, soothe, worry or please. (7) Per formative function: This means people speak to “do things” or perform actions. 4. What is linguistic? “Linguistics” is the scientific study of language. It studies not just one language of any one society, but the language of all human beings. In short, linguistics studies the general principles whereupon all human languages are constructed and operate as systems of communication in their societies or communities. 5. Main branches of linguistics. The study of language as a whole is often called general linguistics. But a linguist sometimes is able to deal with only one aspect of language at a time, thus the arise of various branches: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, psycholinguistics etc. 6. Important distinctions in linguistic. (1) synchronic study vs. diachronic study The description of a language at some point of time (as if it stopped developing) is a synchrony study (synchrony). The description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study (diachronic). (2) Speech vs. writing Speech is primary, because it existed long before writing systems came into being. Genetically children learn to speak before learning to write. Secondly, written forms just represent in this way or that the speech sounds: individual sounds, as in English and French as in Japanese. In contrast to speech, spoken form of language, writing as written codes, gives language new scope and use that speech does not have. Most modern linguistic analysis is focused on speech, different from grammarians of the last century and theretofore. (3) Descriptive vs. prescriptive A linguistic study is “descriptive” if it only describes and analyses the facts of language, and “prescriptive” if it tries to lay down rules for “correct” language behavior. Linguistic studies before this century were largely prescriptive because many early grammars were largely prescriptive because many early grammars were based on “high” (literary or religious) written records. Modern linguistics is mostly descriptive. (4). langue vs. parole F. de Saussure refers “langue” to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community and refers “parole” to the actual or actualized language, or the realization of langue. Langue is abstract, parole specific to the speaking situation; langue not actually spoken by an individual, parole always a naturally occurring event; langue relatively stable and systematic, parole is a mass of confused facts, thus not suitable for systematic investigation. What a linguist ought to do, according to Saussure, is to abstract langue from instances of parole, i.e. to discover the regularities governing all instances of
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parole and make than the subject of linguistics. The langue-parole distinction is of great importance, which casts great influence on later linguists. (5). competence vs. performance According to N. Chomsky, “competence” is the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language, and “performance” is the actual realization of this knowledge in utterances. The former enables a speaker to produce and understand an indefinite number of sentences and to recognize grammatical mistakes and ambiguities. A speaker’s competence is stable while his performance is often influenced by psychological and social factors. So a speaker’s performance does not always match or equal his supposed competence. Chomsky believes that linguists ought to study competence, rather than performance. (6). linguistic potential vs. linguistic behavior These two terms, or the potential-behavior distinction, were made by M. A. K. Halliday in the 1960s, from a functional point of view. There is a wide range of things a speaker can do in his culture, and similarly there are many things he can say, for example, to many people, on many topics. What he actually says (i.e. his “actual linguistic behavior”) on a certain occasion to a certain person is what he has chosen from many possible injustice items, each of which he could have said (linguistic potential).
Chapter 2 Phonetics 1.What is phonetics? “Phonetics” is the science which studies the characteristics of human sound-making, especially those sounds used in speech, and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription, speech sounds may be studied in different ways, thus by three different branches of phonetics.
(1) Articulatory phonetics; the branch of phonetics that examines the way in which a speech sound is produced to discover which vocal organs are involved and how they coordinate in the process.
(2) Auditory phonetics, the branch of phonetic research from the hearer’s point of view, looking into the impression which a speech sound makes on the hearer as mediated by the ear, the auditory nerve and the brain. (3) Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical properties of speech sounds, as transmitted between mouth and ear. Most phoneticians, however, are interested in articulatory phonetics. 2. The IPA The IPA, abbreviation of “International Phonetic Alphabet”, is a compromise system making use of symbols of all sources, including diacritics indicating length, stress and intonation, indicating phonetic variation. Ever since it was developed in 1888, IPA has undergone a number of revisions. 3. Place of articulation It refers to the place in the mouth where, for example, the obstruction occurs, resulting in the utterance of a consonant. 4. Manner of articulation The “manner of articulation” literally means the way a sound is articulated. 5. Phonology “Phonology” is the study of sound systems- the invention of distinctive speech sounds that occur in a language and the patterns wherein they fall. Minimal pair, phonemes, allophones, free variation, complementary distribution, etc., are all to be investigated by a phonologist. 6. Narrow transcription and broad transcription. The former was meant to symbolize all the possible speech sounds, including even the most minute shades of pronunciation while Broad transcription was intended to indicate only those sounds capable of
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distinguishing one word from another in a given language. 7. Phone Phoneme Allophone A “phone” is a phonetic unit or segment. The speech sounds we hear and produce during linguistic communication are all phones. When we hear the following words pronounced: [pit], [tip], [spit], etc., the similar phones we have heard are [p] for one thing, and three different [p]s, readily making possible the “narrow transcription or diacritics”. Phones may and may not distinguish meaning. A “phoneme” is a phonological unit; it is a unit that is of distinctive value. As an abstract unit, a phoneme is not any particular sound, but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context. For example, the phoneme[p] is represented differently in [pit], [tip] and [spit]. The phones representing a phoneme are called its “allophones”, i.e., the different (i.e., phones) but do not make one word so phonetically different as to create a new word or a new meaning thereof. So the different [p] s in the above words is the allophones of the same phoneme [p]. How a phoneme is represented by a phone, or which allophone is to be used, is determined by the phonetic context in which it occurs. But the choice of an allophone is not random. In most cases it is rule-governed; these rules are to be found out by a phonologist. 8. Minimal pairs? When two different phonetic forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the string, the two forms (i. e., word) are supposed to form a “minimal pair”, e.g., “pill” and “bill”, “pill” and “till”, “till” and “dill”, “till” and “kill”, etc. All these words together constitute a minimal set. They are identical in form except for the initial consonants. There are many minimal pairs in English, which makes it relatively easy to know what English phonemes are. It is of great importance to find the minimal pairs when a phonologist is dealing with the sound system of an unknown language. 9. Free variation If two sounds occurring in the same environment do not contrast; namely, if the substitution of one for the other does not generate a new word form but merely a different pronunciation of the same word, the two sounds then are said to be in “free variation”. 10. Complementary distribution When two sounds never occur in the same environment, they are in “complementary distribution”. For example, the aspirated English plosives never occur after [s], and the unsaturated ones never occur initially. Sounds in complementary distribution may be assigned to the same phoneme. 11. Assimilation rule. The “assimilation rule” assimilates one segment to another by “copying” a feature of a sequential phoneme, thus making the two phones more similar. 12. Deletion rule The “deletion rule” tell us when a sound is to be deleted although is orthographically represented. 13. Suprasegmental phonology and suprasegmental features “Suprasegmental phonology” refers to the study of phonological properties of linguistic units larger than the segment called phoneme, such as syllable, length and pitch, stress, intonation.
Chapter 3. Morphology 1. Morpheme and Morphology The “morpheme” is the smallest unit in terms of relationship between expression and content, a unit which cannot be divided without destroying or drastically altering the meaning, whether it is lexical or grammatical.
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“Morphology” is the branch of grammar that studies the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed. It is generally divided into two fields: inflectional morphology and lexical/derivational morphology. 2. Types of Morphemes. (1) free morpheme and bound morpheme A “free morpheme” is a morpheme that constitutes a word by itself, such as ‘bed”, “tree”, etc. A “bound morpheme” is one that appears with at least another morpheme, such as “-s” in “beds”, “-al” in “national” and so on. All monomorphemic words are free morphemes. Those polymorphemic words are either compounds (combination of two or more free morphemes) or derivatives (word derived from free morphemes). (2). root; affix; stem A “root” is the base form of a word that cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. It is the part of the word that is left when all the affixes are removed. “Affixes” is a collective term for the type of morpheme that can be used only when added to another morpheme (the root or stem), so affix is naturally bound. (prefix, suffix, infix) A “stem” is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an affix can be added. (3). Inflectional affix and derivational affix. Inflectional affixes: do not change the word class, but only added a minute or delicate grammatical meaning to the stem. Derivational affixes: often change the lexical meaning and word class. Inflectional affixes are mostly suffixes, and derivational affixes can be prefixes (sub-, de-) or suffixes (-er, -able). 3. Inflection “Inflection” is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect, and case, which does not change the grammatical class of the items to which they are attached. 4. Word formation In its restricted sense, refers to the process of word variations signaling lexical relationships. It can be future sub classified into the compositional type (compound) and the derivational type. 5. Lexical change (1) lexical change proper(特有词汇变化) A. Invention B. Blending: blending is relative complex from of compounding, in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word, or by joining the initial parts of the two words. C. Abbreviation: a new word is created by cutting the final part, the initial part, or both the initial and final parts accordingly. D. Acronym: acronym is made up from the first letters of the name of an organization, which have a heavily modified headword. E. Back-formation: it refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from a longer form already in the language. F. Analogical creation: it can account for the co-existence of the forms, regular and irregular, in the conjugation of some English verbs. G. Borrowing:
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a. loanwords: the borrowing of loanwords is a process in which both form and meaning are borrowed with only a slight adaptation, in some causes, to the phonological system of the new language that they enter.
b. loanblend: it is a process in which part of the form is native and the rest has been borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed.
c. loanshift: it is a process in which the meaning is borrowed, and the form is native. d. loan translation: a special type of borrowing, in which each morpheme or word is translated in the equivalent morpheme or word in another language. (2). Morpho-syntactical change (形态句法变化) A. morphological change: the words have changed their forms B. syntactical change (3). Semantic change (语义变化) A. broading: a process to extend or elevate the meaning from its originally specific sense to a relative general one. B. narrowing: it refers to a process in which the original meaning of a word can be narrowed or restricted to a specific sense. C. meaning shift: the change of meaning has nothing to do with generalization or restriction. D. fork etymology: it refers to a change in form of a word or phrase, resulting from an incorrect popular notion of the origin or meaning of the term on from the influence of more familiar terms mistakenly taken to be analogous. (4). Phological change (音位变化) Refers to changes in sound leading to change in form. a. loss(语音的脱落) b. addition (语音的增加) c. metathesis(换位) d. assimilation (同化) (5). Orthographic change (书写法变化)
Chapter Four. Syntax 1. Syntax. “Syntax” is the study of the rules governing the ways in which words, word groups and phrases are combined to form sentences in a language, or the study of the interrelationships between sentential elements. 2. Sentence. L. Bloomfield defines “sentence” as an independent linguistic form not included by some grammatical marks in any other linguistic from, i. e., it is not subordinated to a larger linguistic form, and it is a structurally independent linguistic form. It is also called a maximum free form. 3. Syntactic relations. “Syntactic relations” refer to the ways in which words, word groups or phrases form sentences; hence three kinds of syntactic relations: positional relations, relations of substitutability and relations of co-occurrence.
a. “Positional relation”, or “word order”, refers to the sequential arrangement to words in a language. It is a manifestation of a certain aspect of what F. de Saussure called “syntagmatic relations”, or of what other linguists call “horizontal relations” or “chain relations”.
b. “Relations of substitutability” refer to classes or sets of words substitutable for each other grammatically in same sentence structures. Saussure called them “associative relations”. Other
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people call them “paradigmatic/vertical/choice relations”. c. “Relations of co-occurrence”, one means that words of different sets of clauses may permit or
require the occurrence of a word of another set or class to form a sentence or a particular part of a sentence. Thus relations of co-occurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations and partly to paradigmatic relations. 3. Grammatical construction Grammatical construction: it can be used to mean any syntactic construct which is assigned one or more conventional function in a language, together with whatever is linguistically conventionalized about its contribution to the meaning or use the construct contains. 4. IC analysis and immediate constituents. “IC analysis” is a new approach of sentence study that cuts a sentence into two (or more) segments. This kind of pure segmentation is simply dividing a sentence into its constituent elements without even knowing what they really are. What remain of the first cut is called “immediate constituents”, and what are left at the final cut is called “ultimate constituents”. 5. Endocentric and exocentric constructions “Endocentric construction” is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents, i.e., a word or a group of words, which serves as a definable “centre” or “head”. Usually noun phrases, verb phrases and adjective phrases belong to endocentric types because the constituent items are subordinate to the head. “Exocentric construction”, opposite of endocentric construction, refers to a group of syntactically related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as whole; that is to say, there is no definable centre or head inside the group. Exocentric construction usually includes basic sentence, prepositional phrase, predicate (verb + object) construction, and connective (be + complement) construction. 6. Coordination and subordination. They are two main types of endocentric construction. Coordination is a common syntactic pattern in English and other languages formed by grouping together two of more categories of the same type with the help of a conjunction such as “and” ,“but” and “or”. Subordination refers to the process or result of linking linguistic units so that they have different syntactic status, one being dependent upon the other, and usually a constituent of the other. (three basic types of subordination clause: complement clause, adjunct clause, relation clause.) 7. Syntactic function (1) Subject: “subject” refers to one of the nouns in the nominative case. In English, the subject of a sentence is often said to be the doer of the action, while the object is the person or thing acted upon by the doer. a. Grammatical subject: it refers to a noun which can establish correspondence with the verb and which can be checked by a tag-question test, e.g., “He is a good cook, (isn’t he?).” b. Logical subject: the original object noun phrase occupies the grammatical space before a verb, the space that a subject normally occupies, the core subject, now the object of a preposition, is called the logical subject. (2). Predicate: A “predicate” refers to a major constituent of sentence structure in a binary analysis in which all obligatory constituents other than the subject are considered together. e.g., in the sentence “The monkey is jumping”, “is jumping” is the predicate. (3) Object: “object” refers to the receiver or goal of an action and it is further classified into two kinds:
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direct object and indirect object. In some inflecting languages, an object is marked by case labels: the “accusative case” for direct object, and the “dative case” for direct object, and the “dative case” for indirect to word order (after the verb and preposition) and by inflections (of pronouns). e.g., in the sentence “John kissed me”, “me” is the object. Modern linguists suggest that an object refers to such an item that it can become a subject in passive transformation. 8. Category The term “category” in some approaches refers to classes and functions in its narrow sense, e.g., noun, verb, subject, predicate, noun phrase, verb phrase, etc. More specifically it refers to the defining properties of these general units: the categories of the noun, for example, include number, gender, case and countability; and of the verb, for example, tense, aspect, voice, etc. (1) Number: “Number” is a grammatical category used for the analysis of word classes displaying such
contrasts as singular, dual, plural, etc. In English, number is mainly observed in nouns, and there are only two forms: singular and plural. Number is also reflected in the inflections of pronouns and verbs. (2) Gender: “Gender” displays such contrasts as “masculine”, “feminine”, “neuter”, or “animate” and “inanimate”, etc., for the analysis of word classes. When word items refer to the sex of the real-world entities, we natural gender (the opposite is grammatical gender). (3) Case: “Case” identifies the syntactic relationship between words in a sentence. In Latin grammar, cases are based on variations in the morphological forms of the word, and are given the terms “accusative”, “nominative”, “dative”, etc. In English, the case category is realized in three ways: by following a preposition and by word order. (4) Agreement (or Concord): “Concord” may be defined as requirement that the forms of two or more words of specific word classes that stand in specific syntactic relationship with one another shall be characterized by the same paradigmatically marked category or categories, e.g., “man runs”, “men run”. 9. Syntagmatic relation and paradigmatic relation Syntagmatic relation: it is a relation between one item and other in a sequence, or between elements which are all present, such as the relation between “weather” and the others in the following sentence “If the weather is nice, we’ll go out.” Paradigmatic relation: it is also called Associative, a relation between elements replaceable with each other at a particular place in a structure, or between one element present and the others absent. It is also known as the vertical relation or choice relation. 10. Phrase; clause and sentence. A “phrase” is a single element of structure containing more than one word, and lacking the subject-predicate structure typical of “clauses”. Traditionally, it is seen as part of a structural hierarchy, falling between a clause and word, e.g., “the three tallest girls” (nominal phrase). There is now a tendency to make a distinction between word groups and phrases. A “word group” is an extension of a word of a particular class by way of modification with its main features of the class unchanged. Thus we have nominal group, verbal group, adverbial group, conjunction group and preposition group. A “clause” is group of words with its own subject and predicate included in a larger subject-verb construction, namely, in a sentence. Clauses can also be classified into two kinds: finite and non-finite clauses, the latter referring to what are traditionally called infinitive phrase, participle phrase and gerundial phrase. Sentence is the minimum part of language that expresses a complete thought. Bloomfield (1935) defined
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the sentence as “one not included by virtue of any grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form.” 11. Recursiveness It mainly means that a phrasal constituent can be embedded within another constituent having the same category. By “recursiveness” we mean that there is theoretically no limit to the number of the embedded clauses in a complex sentence. This is true also with nominal and adverbial clauses, e.g., “I saw the man who killed a cat who…a rat which…that…” (1) Conjoining: “Conjoining” refers to a construction where one clause is co-ordinated or conjoined with
another, e. g., “John bought a cat and his wife killed her.” (2) Embedding: “Embedding” refers to the process of construction where one clause is included in the
sentence (or main clause) in syntactic subordination, e.g., “I saw the man who had killed a chimpanzee.” 12. Beyond the sentence (1) Sentential connection: the notion of hypotactic and paratactic relations can also be applied to the study of syntactic relations between sentences. a. “Hypotactic relation” refers to a construction where constituents are linked by means of conjunction, e.g. “He bought eggs and milk.” b. “Paratactic relation” refers to constructions which are connected by juxtaposition, punctuation or intonation, e. g., “He bought tea, coffee, eggs and milk” (pay attention to the first three nouns connected without “and”). (2). Cohesion: Cohesion is a concept to do with discourse of text rather than with syntax, it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text, and defines it as a text. Textual cohesiveness can be realized by employing various cohesive devices: conjunction, ellipsis, lexical collection, lexical repetition, reference, substitution etc.
Chapter Five. Meaning 1. Semantics: “Semantics” refers to the study of the communication of meaning through language. Or simply, it is the study of meaning. 2. What is meaning? Though it is difficult to define, “meaning” has the following meaning: (1) an intrinsic property; (2) the connotation of a word; (3) the words put after a dictionary entry; (4) the position an object occupies in a system; (5) what the symbol user actually refers to; (6) what the symbol user should refer to; (7) what the symbol user believes he is referring to; (8) what the symbol interpreter refers to; (9) what the symbol interpreter believes it refers to; (10) what the symbol interpreter believes the user refers to…linguists argued about “meaning of meaning” fiercely in the result of “realism”, “conceptualism/mentalism”, “mechanism”, “contextualism”, “behaviorism”, “functionalism”, etc. Mention ought to be made of the “Semantic Triangle Theory” of Ogden & Richards. We use a word and the listener knows what it refers to because, according to the theory, they have acquired the same concept/reference of the word used and of the object/referent. 3. What is the difference between meaning, concept, connotation, sense, implication, denotation,
notation, reference, implicature and signification? “Meaning” refers to the association of language symbols with the real word. “Concept” or “notion” is the impression of objects in people’s mind.
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“Connotation” is the implied meaning, similar to “implication” and “implicature”. “Sense” is the lexical position in which a word finds itself. “Denotation”, like “sense”, is not directly related with objects, but makes the abstract assumption of the real world. “Reference” is the word-object relationship. “Implicature”, in its narrow sense, refers to conversational implicature achieved by intentionally violating one of the four CP maxims. “Signification”, in contrast with “value”, mean the meaning of situation may not have any communicative value, like “What’s this? 4. Referential Theory: The theory of meaning which relates the meaning of a word to the thing it refers to, or stands for. It is especially true in the case of proper nouns and definite noun phrase. It can not refer to the abstract concepts. 5. Semantic/Semiotic Triangle Ogden and Richards presented the classic “Semantic Triangle” as manifested in the following diagram, in which the “symbol” or “form” refers to the linguistic elements (word, sentence, etc.), the “referent” refers to the object in the world of experience, and “thought” or “reference” refers to concept or notion. Thus, the symbol a word signifies “things” by virtue of the “concept”, associated with the form of the word in the mind of the speaker of the language. The “concept” thus considered is meaning of the word. 6. Sense relation. There are generally three kinds of sense relations recognized, namely sameness relation, oppositeness relation, and inclusiveness relation. (1). Synonymy: “Synonymy” is used to mean sameness or close similarity of meaning. Dictionary makers (lexicographers) rely on the existence of synonymy for their definitions. Some semanticians maintain, however, that there are no real synonyms, because two or more words named synonyms are expected without exception to differ from one another in one of the following aspects: In shades of meaning (e.g., finish, complete, close, conclude, terminate, finalize, end, etc.); In stylistic meaning; In emotive meaning (or affective meaning); In range of use (or collocative meaning); In British and American English usages [e.g., autumn (BrE), fall (AmE)]. Simeon Potter said, “Language is like dress. We vary our dress to suit the occasion. We do not appear at a friend’s silver-wedding anniversary in gardening clothes, nor do we go punting on the river in a dinner-jacket.” This means the learning of synonyms is important to anyone that wishes to use his language freely and well. (2). Antonymy: The term “antonymy” is used for oppositions of meaning; words that stand opposite in meaning are called “antonyms”, or opposites, which fall in there categories 1) gradable antonyms (e.g., good-bad); (2) complementary antonyms (e.g., single-married); (3) relational antonyms (e.g., buy-sell). (3)Hyponymy: “Hyponymy” involves us in the notion of meaning inclusion. It is a matter of class membership. That is to say, when X id a kind of Y, the lower term X is the “hyponym”, and the upper term Y is the “superordinate”. Two or more hyponyms sharing the same one superordinate are called “co-hyponyms”. For example, “flower” is the superordinate of “tulip”, “violet” and “rose”, which are the co-hyponyms of “flower”. 7. What is polysemy? What is homonymy? “Polysemy” refers to the semantic phenomenon that a word may have than one meaning. For example, “negative”, means (1) a statement saying or meaning “no”, (2) a refusal or denial, (3) one of the following words and expressions: no, not, nothing, never, not at all, etc., (4) a negative photograph or film. But we
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can sometimes hardly tell if a form has several meanings or it is a different word taking this form; hence the difference between polysemy and homonymy. 8. Entailment “Entailment” can be illustrated by the following two sentences, with Sentence A entailing Sentence B: A: He married a blonde heiress. B: He married a blonde. In terms of truth value, the following relationships exist between these two sentences1) When A is true, B is necessarily true; (2) When B is false, too;(3) when A is false, B may be true or false; (4) When B is true, A may be true or false. Entailment is basically a semantic relation or logical implication, but we have to assume co-reference of “He” in sentence A and sentence B, before we have A entail B. 9. Presupposition Similar to entailment, “presupposition” is a semantic relationship or logical connection. The above-mentioned “When phrase No.1”is also true with presupposition. For example: A: The girl he married was an heiress. B: He married a girl. But there is an important difference: Presupposition is not subject to negation, i.e., when A is false, B is still true. Other statements about the truth value in presupposition are 1) When B is true, A can either be true or false; (2) When B is false, A has no truth value at all. Presupposition does not have to be found between two propositions. An example in point is: “When did you stop beating your wife?” This presupposes that he has been beating his wife. 10. Componential analysis “Componential analysis” defines the meaning of a lexical element in terms of semantic components. For example, we may “clip” the following words “Man”, “Woman”, “Boy” and “Girl” so that we have only separate parts of them. Man: + Human + Adult + Male Woman: + Human + Adult -Male Boy: +Human –Adult +Male Girl: +Human –Adult –Male 11. Predication analysis It is an important step in the analysis of sentential meaning. The predication is the common category shared by propositions, questions, commands, etc. Predication analysis is to break down predications into their constituents: arguments (logical participants), and a predicate (a relational element). Between them, the predicate is the major element that governs the argument. 12. Contextualism “Contextualism” is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from, or reduce it to, observable context: the “situational context” and the “linguistic context”. Every utterance occurs in a particular spatial-temporal situation, as the following factors are related to the situational context: (1) the speaker and the hearer; (2) the actions they are performing at the time; (3) various external objects and events; (4) deictic features. The “linguistic context” is another aspect of contextualism. It considers the probability of one word’s co-occurrence or collocation with another, which forms part of the meaning, and an important factor in communication. 13. Complementarity Complementarity may be regarded as special case of incampaticility holding over two-term set. It is characteristic of such pairs of lexical items that the approval of one implies the denial of the other.
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14. Selection restrictions It refers to semantic restriction on what lexical items can go with what others. (e.g. “regret” requires a human subject).
Chapter Six. Language in Use 1. Pragmatics Pragmatics can be simply defined as the study of language in use. It is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (or reader). It has, consequently, more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. 2. Speech Act Theory Speech act theory was proposed by J. L. Austin and has been developed by J. R. Searle. Basically, they believe that language is not only used to inform or to describe things, it is often used to “do things”, to perform acts. Austin suggests three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something and three kinds of acts are performed simultaneously: (1) Locutionary act: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference; (2) Illocutionary act: the making of a statement, offer, promise, etc, in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it; (3) Perlocutionary act: the bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence, such effects being special to the circumstances 3. Cooperative principle H.P. Grice (1975) believes that there must be some mechanisms governing the production and comprehension of these utterances. He suggests that there is a set or assumptions guiding the conduct of conversation. This is what he calls the Cooperative Principle. He formulates the principle and its maxims as follows:
Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the exchange in which you are engaged.
The Maxim of Quality Try to make your contribution one that is true, specifically (i) do not say what you believe to be false; (ii) do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. The Maxim of Quantity (i) Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purpose of the exchange; (ii) do not make your contribution more informative than is required. The Maxim of Relevance Make your contribution relevant. The Maxim of Manner Be perspicuous and specific: (i) avoid obscurity; (ii) avoid ambiguity; (iii) be brief; (iv) be orderly. 4. Characteristics of Implicature. a. Calculability: the fact that speakers try to convey conversational implicatures and hearers are able to
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understand them suggests that implicatures are calculable. They can be worked out on the basis of some previous information. b. Cancellability: cancellability is also known as defeasibility. We said that the presence of a conversational implicature relies on a number of factors: the conventional meaning of words used, the CP, the linguistic and situational contexts, etc. So if any of them changes, the implicature will also change. c. Non-detachability: by non- detachability is meant that a conversational implicature is attached to the semantic content of what is said, not to the linguistic form. d. Non-conventionality: conversational implicature is by definition different from the conventional meaning of words. 5. Entailment It is a logical relationship between two sentences in which the truth of the second necessarily follows from the truth of the first, which the falsity of the first follows from the falsity of the second. Entailment is part of the conventional meaning. 6. Conversational Implicature It refers a type of implied meaning, which is deduced on the basis of the conventional meaning of words together with the context, under the guidance of the CP and its maxims.
Chapter Seven. Language and mind, culture and society 1. Garden path: garden path sentences are sentences that are initially interpreted with a different
structure than they actually have. It typically takes quite a long time to figure out what the other structure is if the first choice turns out to be incorrect. 2. Minimal attachment theory: it refers to the idea that people initially construct the simplest (or least complex) syntactic structure when interpreting the structure of sentence. 3. Perceptual span: it is the range of letters from which useful information is extracted. 4. Immediacy assumption: the reader is supposed to carry out the processes required to understand each word and its relationship to previous words in the sentence as soon as that word is encountered; this is known as the Immediacy Assumption. 5. Schemata: packets of stored knowledge play, an important role in language processing. 6. Spoonerism (slip of the tongue): the initial letter or letters of two words are transposed. 7. Anticipation error: it occurs when a word is spoken earlier in the sentence than it should be. 8. Exchange error: in which two items within a sentence are swapped. 9. Morpheme-exchange: in which the root or basic forms of two words are switched leaving the grammatical structure unchanged. 10. Diglossia: it refers to a sociolinguistic situation similar to bilingualism. But instead of two different languages in a diglossic situation two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play. 11. Social dialect: it refers to a dialect associated with a given demographic group. 12. Official language: it is similar to the standard language or the national language, but it is by no means synonymous to them. It is used under formal, official situation (or in mass media) and its distinction lies in its social function. 13. Taboo: a linguistic taboo refers to a word or expression that is prohibited by the “polite” society from general use. Obscene, profane and swear words are all taboo words that are to be avoid entirely or at least avoided in mixed company. 14. Code switching: a speaker does not necessarily have to follow a particular variety or dialect all the
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time in the course of communication. He may change from the standard language to the non-standard language; he may shift his subject matter which dominates the incidence of vocabulary he may move from one point on the formality scale to another point. This linguistic behavior is referred as code-switching. 15. Free variation: when two or more linguistic terms occur in the same position without and apparent change of meaning, they are said to be in free variation. 16. Linguistic relativity: linguistic relativity, one of the two points in Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, states that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language alone, and that “there is no limit to the structural diversity of languages.” 17. Cross-culture communication: it is the communication between people whose cultural perception and symbol systems ate distinct enough to alter the communication event. It is frequently used to refer to communication between people from different culture, which implies a comparison between cultures. 18. Proxemics: it is the study of our use of space and how various differences in that use can make us feel more relaxed or anxious. Personal space or distance from other persons is a powerful concept, and research suggests it directly relates to our interpretation of the meaning of message conveyed by the other person.
Other important terms 1. Grapheme and orthography A “grapheme” is the minimal constructive unit in the writing system of a language. The English grapheme A is represented by A,α,a etc. Orthography means correct spelling, spelling rules or attempts to improve spelling. 2. Affixation, conversion and compounding “Affixation” is the morphological process whereby grammatical of lexical information is added to the base (root or stem). It has been the oldest and the most productive word-formation method in the English language and some other European languages. “Prefixation” means addition of a prefix to make a new word, while “suffixation” means adding a suffix to a word. The word “unfaithful” is result of both prefixation and suffixation. “Conversion” (called sometimes “full conversion”) is a word-formation process by which a word is altered from one part of speech into another without the addition (or deletion) of any morpheme. “Partial conversion” is also alteration when a word of one word-class appears in a function which is characteristic of another word-class, e.g., “the wealthy” (=wealthy people). ”Compounding” is so complex a word-formation process as far as English is concerned that there is no formal criterion that can be used for the definition of it, though it may mean simply that two words or more come together used as one lexical item, like “dustbin”. 3. Blending, abbreviation and back formation “Blending” is a relatively complex form of compounding in which two roots are blended by joining the initial part of the first root and the final part of the second root, or by joining the initial parts of the two roots, e.g., smog→smoke+fog, boatel→boat + hotel, etc. “Abbreviation”, also called in some cases “clipping”, means that a word that seems unnecessarily long is shortened, usually by clipping either the front or the back part of it, e.g., telephone→phone, professor→prof., etc. Broadly speaking, abbreviation includes acronyms that are made up from the first letters of the long name of an organization, e.g., World Bank→WB, European Economic Community→EEC, etc. Other examples
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of acronyms can be found with terminologies, to be read like one word, e.g., radio detecting and ranging→radar. Test of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL, etc. “Back-formation” refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by detecting an imagined affix from a longer form already present in the language. It is a special kind of metanalyais, combined with analogical creation, e.g., editor→edit, enthusiasm→enthuse, etc. 4. Analogical creation and borrowing The process of “analogical creation”, as one of the English tendencies in English word-formation, refers to the phenomenon that a new word or a new phrase is coined by analogy between a newly created one and an existing one. For example, “marathon” appeared at the First Olympic Games and by analogy modern English created such words as “telethon”, “talkthon”, etc. Analogy may create single words (e.g., sunrise-moonrise, earthrise, etc.; earthquake-starquake, youthquake, etc.) and phrases (e.g., environmental pollution-sound pollution, air pollution, cultural pollution, etc.). “Borrowing” means the English language borrowed words from foreign languages, which fall in four categories: aliens, denizens, translation-loans and semantic borrowings. “Aliens” are foreign loans that still keep their alien shapes, i. e., morphological and phonological features, e.g., “elite”, “coup détat”, “coupé”, etc. (from French). “Deniens” , also foreign words, have transformed their foreign appearance, i.e., they have been Angolcized (or Americanized), e. g., “get” (a Scandinavian borrowing), “theater” (a French loan), etc. “Hybrids” are also denizens, because they are words made up of two parts both from foreign soil, such as “sociology” (“socio-” from French and –logy from Greek). “Translation-loans” are words imported by way of translation, e. g., “black humor” from French(“humor noir”), “found object” form French ,too (“object trouve”), etc. Finally, semantic borrowings have acquired new meaning under the influence of language or languages other than the source tongue. For example, “gift” mean “the price of a wife” in Old English (450-1150AD), and after the semantic borrowing of the meaning of “gift or present” of the Scandinavian term “gipt”, it meant and still means “gift” in the modern sense of it. 5. Assimilation, dissimilation and metathesis “Assimilation” refers to change of a sound as the result of the influence of an adjacent sound, which is called “contact” or “contiguous” assimilation. The assimitative processes at word in language could be explained by the “theory of least effort”, i.e., in speaking we tend to exert as little effort as possible so that we do not want to vary too often places of articulation in uttering a sequence of sounds. Assimilation takes place in quick speech very often. In expressions such as “immobile”, “illegal”, etc., the negative prefixes should be or have been “in-” etymologically. “Dissimilation”, opposite of assimilation, is the influence exercised by one sound segment upon the articulation of another sound, so that the sounds become less alike than expected. As there are two[r] sounds in the Latin word “peregrines”, for instance, the first segment had to dissimilate into[l], hence the English word “pilgrim”. “Metathesis” is a process involving an alteration in the sequence of sounds. Metathesis had originally been a performance error, which was overlooked and accepted by the speech community. For instance, the word “bird” was “bird” in Old English. The word “ask” used to be pronounced [ask] in Old English, as still occurs in some English dialects. 6. Applied linguistics In the broadest sense, applied Linguistics refers to the study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems, such as lexicography, translation, speech pathology, etc. Applied linguistics uses information from sociology, psychology, anthropology, and information theory as well as from linguistics
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in order to develop its own theoretical models of language and language use, and then uses this information and theory in practical areas such as syllabus design, speech therapy, language planning, machine translation, various facets of communication research, and many others. In the narrow sense, applied linguistics refers to the study of second /foreign language learning and teaching. It serves as a mediating area which interprets the results of linguistic theories and makes them user-friendly to the language teacher and learner. 7. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The Sapir-Whorf theory, named after the American linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, is a very influential but controversial theory concerning the relationship between language, thought and culture. What this hypothesis suggests is like this: our language helps mould our way of thinking and, consequently, different languages may probably express our unique ways of understanding the world. Following this argument, two important points could be captured in this theory. On the one hand, language may determine our thinking patterns; on the other, similarity between languages is relative, the greater their structural differentiation is, the more diverse their conceptualization of the world will be. For this reason, this hypothesis has alternatively been referred to as Linguistic Determinism and Linguistic Relativity. Nowadays, few people would possibly tend to accept the original form of this theory completely. Consequently, two versions of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis have been developed, a strong version and a weak version. The strong version of the theory refers to the claim the original hypothesis suggests, emphasizing the decisive role of language as the shaper of our thinking patterns. The weak version of this hypothesis, however, is a modified type of its original theory, suggesting that there is a correlation between language, culture and thought, but the cross-cultural differences thus produced in our ways of thinking are relative, rather than categorical. 8. Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics studies relationships between language and various aspects of society. One major focus of sociolinguistics is the study of language variation, that is, the ways language differs across social settings. 9. Language varieties and dialects Language variety is a broad term that can be applied to any language system. For example, entire languages such as English, Japanese, Flemish, and Malaysian can be referred to as language varieties. Language varieties also (and perhaps more commonly) refer to different forms of the same language. Such varieties are often called dialects. Dialects of a language may be associated with different geographical regions, for example, Michigan, Mississippi, or Los Angeles, as well as with various social groups defined by socioeconomic class, culture, and/or ethnicity. Thus, we speak of regional dialects and social dialects. 10. Pidgins and creoles Two sorts of language varieties that do not fit typical language or dialect definitions are pidgins and creoles. These interesting varieties evolve as the result of contact between multiple languages. Pidgins, for example, develop when speakers from different languages need a common language for communication, such as for trade. Circumstances may not allow speakers to select one of their own languages as a lingua franca, or common language, so speakers create a system that blends various parts of their different languages. We often refer to these mixed language systems, or pidgins, as English-based, Portuguese-based, and so forth to indicate what language has supplied the bulk of the vocabulary to the pidgin. Examples of English-based pidgins include Tok Pisin, spoken in Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon Pidgin, spoken in Cameroon, Africa. These and other pidgins differ from "normal" language varieties in that they are simplified in their phonological, lexical, and structural features.
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Pidgins are usually auxiliary languages; that is, pidgin speakers tend to have some other language as their "mother tongue" and typically use pidgins for other social functions. Often when the original need for the pidgin disappears, so does the pidgin. In some cases, however, the role of the pidgin greatly expands as a speech community acquires the pidgin as its primary language. When this occurs, the pidgin turns into something else--a creole. Structurally, creoles (e.g. the French-based Haitian Creole, the English-based Jamaican creole, and many others) are distinguished from pidgins by their larger vocabularies and more complex grammatical patterns. 11. Competence: it refers to the grammatical knowledge of the ideal language user and has nothing to do with the actual use of language in concrete situation. 12. Communicative competence: four components
a. possibility: the ability to produce grammatical sentence. b. feasibility: the ability to produce sentences which can be decoded by the human brain. c. appropriateness: the ability to use correct forms of language in a specific socio-cultural context. d. performance: the fact that the utterance is completed. 13. Syllabus: it is the planning of a course of instruction.
Curriculum: it referring to all the learning goals, objectives, contents, processed, resources and means of evaluation planned for students both in and out of the school.
14. Constructivism: they construct language in certain social and cultural contexts. 15. Interlanguage: it is a language system between the target language and the learner’s native language. It
is imperfect compared with the target language, but it is not mere translation from the learner’s native language. 16. Error: it is the grammatically incorrect form. 17. Mistake: it appears when the language is correct grammatically but improper in a communicational context. 18. Lapse: it refers to slips of the tongue or pen made by either foreign language learners or native speakers. 19. Error analysis: it is the study and analysis of error and is confined to the language learner. However, here “error” refers generally to the learner’s misuse or misunderstanding of the target language, may it be grammatical of pragmatic. 20. Contrastive analysis: it refers to the systematic study of evidence which shows the widespread influence of the mother tongue. 21. Positive transfer: the structures of the two languages are similar. 22. Negative transfer: The two languages are different in structure, it occurs and result in error. 23. Aptitude test: it attempts to measure the learner’s aptitude or natural abilities to learn language. 24. Proficiency test: the purpose of proficiency test is to discover what the testee already knows about the target language. A proficiency test is not concerned with any particular course but the learner’s general level of language mastery. 25. Achievement test: it assesses how much a learner has mastered the contents of a particular course. 26. Diagnostic test: it is designed to discover mainly what the testee does not know about the language. 27. Validity: it is the degree to which a test measures what it is meant to measure. 28. Content validity: it refers to the extent to which the test adequately covers the syllabus area to be tested. 29. Reliability: it can be defined as consistency. (If a test produces the same or very similar result when given to the same candidate twice in succession or marked by different people, it is
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regarded as having high degree of reliability.) 30. Structural test: focus on the linguistic competence of the testee. What is to be tested in mainly the
knowledge of the language structure. 31. Discrete point test: when the language structures or skills are further divided into individual points of
phonology, syntax and lexis, it is called a discrete point test. 32. Integrative test: an integrative test or test item operates on more than one level of structure or
combines more than one language skills. 33. Communicative test: based on the psycholinguistic-sociolinguistic approach, communicative tests are
intended to check the testee’s communicative competence. They set out to show whether of how well the candidates can perform a set of specified activities.
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