十二法则 1 经济(economy) 2 就业(employment) 3 时间(time) 4 空间(space) 5 心理(psychology) 6 生理(physiology) 7 环境(environment) 8 教育(education) 9 文化(culture) 10 科技(technology) 11 情感(emotion) 12 个人权利(human right) Example one: Some people think tobacco should be made illegal in the same wa as other drugs because the products containing it are addictive. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Advantages 经济:increase revenue for the country and businessmen concerning this arena/field, raise the revenue of a country 就业:offer employment opportunities for job-seekers in various fronts/fields/domains, including manufacturing, transporting, selling, governing 时间: killing the time 心理: relieve/ease one’s pressure/stress 文化: form/shape cigar culture Disadvantages 经济: money-consuming for smokers 生理: be addictive to it, harmful to smokers’ health, leading to lung cancer 环境: air pollution potential hazard of fire 空间: passive smoking / second-hand smoking 情感: be overly-dependent on smoking Example two: Many people are optimistic about the 21st century and see it as anopportunity to make positive changes to the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree with their optimism? Advantages: 经济: economy be promoted, efficiency be increased 科技: advanced technology facilitates people’s life 时间: time-saving when conducting various kinds of activities


个人权利: human rights be laid more emphasis on 心理: increasing number of recreational activities to help people relieve from pressure Disadvantages: 就业: growing population, fierce competition 心理: pressure coming from a range of aspects 环境: environmental pollution continuing getting worse

1、经济与效率 有利于经济 Spur/boost impel economy, generate government revenue, invest more to .., earn foreign currency, create/generate job opportunities ease/relieve/alleviate the pressure of unemployment, improve living standard, ease the financial burden of students. redistribute the income 不利于经济 Hinder/hamper/impede the growth of economy worsen the situation of unemployment lay a heavy burden on students’ families endanger the stability and safety of the society, 2、不赞成国家投资的理由: We have a very limited budget. We should make full use of the taxpayers’ money to benefit the common people. China is still a developing country, which is short on funds. A thousand and one things remain to be taken care of. There are still many people living below the poverty line, and many eligible children can not receive the basic education for lack of money. Priority should without doubt be given to the development of infrastructure, not the building of art centers. 3、时间与空间(土地资源的占用) 省时间:time-saving Save much time, improve efficiency, make more profits(可以转到经济) Save space, to construct more healthcare-related buildings to benefit the public and entertainment establishments to enrich their spiritual and cultural life. 浪费时间 time-consuming Sth/doing sth directly/indirectly Waste/lavish time Occupy the cherished land resources,


4、就业与竞争 Becoming increasingly competitive, which is unfavorable to seeking jobs, not to mention decent jobs, worsen the situation of unemployment, lead to many stress-related decreases such as depression, insomnia, to name but a few. Create/generate more and more job opportunities, foster/develop/cultivate a strong sense of competition and cooperation(转经济与效率) 5、压力与健康 Impose heavy strain on/ lead to more and more emotional and abnormal psychological problems/ lead to many stress-related decreases such as depression, insomnia, to name but a few. Ease/relieve/alleviate pressure, which is favorable to studying more efficiently/develop their interests in other fields 6、智力与教育(心态,视野,精神状态) 正方: Widen horizons help cultivate independence enrich spiritual life most manual work involves only basic knowledge deepen their understanding of certain categories lay a solid foundation for further study Reduce the cost of school buildings and the trip between home and campus bring a sense of belonging deepen students’ memory of important knowledge is necessary in learning which requires memorizing things help find jobs easily inspire children’s interest in help cultivate the sense of competition and cooperation increase their creativity and imagination get a chance to experience the totally different cultures traditional way and thinking have endured the test of time and could help young people to avoid mistake make it possible for the students to accumulate job experience earlier Save a great deal of time and fund for both the government and the students Getting students’ physically ready for their career is also a part of education purpose A strong body is indispensable in the success of sports Students can learn from the same professors as colleges students do Students can download and store the lessons, which enables them to choose the convenient time for them to study Students can communicate with professors through email when questions occur.

stifle the development of creativity, imagination and interest expose them to the dark sides of society exert heavy financial burden on the student’s family cause brain strain in the student’s homeland

occupy their study time/go astray easily does harm to their mental health/fail to enjoy colorful life Different way of life and culture put students’ physical and mental health at risk. is time-consuming

Colleges and universities are not only places for learning but for social activities as well. Students can get on-the-site guidance from the faculty members. Teachers cannot be replaced in molding students’ characteristics and teaching the correct attitudes towards society and others stimulate the development of economy with well-trained labor pool facilitate understanding knowledge of theoretical

Staying before computers too long may exert negative impact on both mental and physical health of the user. Passing on knowledge is only part of the role of education. Teachers help students to choose information and learn it in a correct way. Teachers’ help is necessary when questions occur./ make it easier for the students to find their job

7、发展与污染 Arguments for tourism: 1. Boost the local economy, increase the government revenue, earn foreign currency and improve the living standard of the locals. Relieve the pressure of unemployment. 2. Enhance mutual understanding, remove hostility and prejudice, promote good will and strengthen ties. Maintain world peace. 3. Showcase the brilliant culture and glorious history. Promote cross-cultural communication. Improve the image of a place. Increase reputation and upgrade the status in the international community. 4. Improve the living environment and better the basic facilities. Increase investment in infrastructure. 5. Improve the quality of the locals. Expose them to the outside world. Widen their vision and develop a broader mind. Arguments against tourism 1. lead to the extinction of some species 2. result in shortage of energy and natural resources 3. be irreparable and irreversible damage 4. break the ecological balance 5. lead to extravagant waste of public funds 6. be the drying up of our limited natural resources and the deterioration of the environment 7. contaminate environment 8. generate electromagnetic radiation and jeopardize human health 9. bring about the risks such as computer virus, nuclear leakage, biological weapons, global warming, exhaustion of natural resources and extinction of many plant and animal species 10. be a root of all evil 11. aggravate the traffic jams and worsen the crowdedness 12. will pay a high price for this negative development of 8、权力与隐私

Violate/invade/intrude(侵犯(动词))+ rights/privacy/pride/dignity seriously The brazen violation/invasion(侵犯(名词)) of rights, interests, privacy and dignity. 9、责任与义务 Take/shoulder/assume the responsibility Shirk off the responsibility