雅思英语语法材料 第一章 谓语动词 第一讲 时态
一 现在 般 主 be + v-ing 主 will/shall + v 主 原… would/sh 主 is/are going to 肯 主 is/are+… 定 主 v 原/v 单三 句 +… 式 主 be about to do going sth 马上 to+ v 原 主 will +be + doing sth 将要 否 主 定 not+… 主 didn‘t + v 原… 句 主 don ‘ not + v 原 not
ould + v v：打算 主 was/were+… 一般现在（主将从 主 v-ed+… 现） was/were 主 原…
is/are 主 was/were not…
主 be + not + v-ing 主 主 won ‘ t/shall Was/Were
式 t/doesn‘t + v 原+…
not going to+ v 原 主 would/ should not+ v 原 +…/ Would/Sh
going to+ v 原
疑 Is/Are 主+…? 问 Do/Does 主 +v 句 原？ 式 Did 主+v 原? Was/were 主…?
Be 主 v-ing+…？
ould 主 v
Will/Shall 主 +v 原+…？ 原？ Is/Are 主+v 原？ Was/were 主 going to+v 原？ 将来计划、明确安
重复、习惯；状 排； 意 态， 客观； 频度， 动作已经完成；描述一 预测、尚未安排、 义 次数；列车、航 系列动作；过去习惯 可能；考虑打算、 班 事实预测 标 频 度 副 词 ： yesterday; 志 always, often, night/week/month 性 rarely, 的 usually, 时 sometimes, 间 seldom; last When, as soon as, after, before, as long the next… 将来 过去谈论
season / year; …ago; until, just now; as;
介 词 + 过 去 的 tomorrow…; week/month/season/ye next…;
状 once/twice/th 语 ree/four+ 数 ； 次
in+ 表 示 将 来 的 week/month/seaso n/year…
week/month/ye ar 时态’三字经?： 现在时，并不难；表重复，表习惯；表状态，表客观；有频度，有次数；看 主语，定单三。
（二）（现在、过去、将来、过去将来）进行 进行 肯定句 式 主 +v-ing 现在 is/are 主 过去 主 was/were will/shall +v-ing be + v-ing… to+ v 原 主 Was/Were not 否定句 式 主 is/are not 主 +v-ing was/were 主 won‘t be going to+ v 原 + v-ing… 主 wouldn‘t+ v 原 / Would 主+v 原？ 疑问句 式 意义 Is/Are +v-ing…? 主 Was/were +v-ing…? 主 Will 主 be + Was/were 主 going v-ing…？ to+v 原？ 说话时正在发 为过去某一动 将 来 进 行 着 过去谈论将来进行
过去将来 主 would + v 原… 主 was/were going
生的状态；目 作提供场景 前正在进行的 工作 now; at the moment, 标志性 的时间 状语 currently,
的动作； 纯粹 着的动作 的将来计划 或安排
when， while， by this time b that time; the presently, as at this present, week tomorrow… next day
完成 主 肯定句 式 d… 否定句 式 疑问句 式 意义 主
将来 will 主
过去将来 would have+
has/have+v-e 主 had+v-ed… have+ v-ed… v-ed… has/have 主 had not + 主 +won ‘ t 主 wouldn‘ t have+ v-ed… 主 Had +v-ed…? have+ v-ed 主 Will v-ed… 主 have+
not v-ed… Has/Have +v-ed…?
过去动作持续 过去某时之前 将 来 某 时 之 过去将来某时之前 到现在； 发生的动作 前 完 成 的 动 完成的动作
过去动作影响 到现在 for+ 时间段， when, as soon since+ 时 间 as, 点; 标志性 Ever, never, after; 的时间 just, 状语 already, than … , … yet; before, hardly till now, when… sooner … no time by … the ,
Before, by+ Before, by+ 固 定 固 定 时 间 ; 时 间 ; in+ 某 段 时 in+某段时间 间
完成进 现在 行 主 肯定句 been 式 +v-ing… +v-ing… +v-ing…
将来 主 will have
has/have 主 had been
主 否定句 not 式
has/have 主 been been +v-ing… had not
主 +won ‘ t 主 wouldn‘t have have been been +v-ing… +v-ing… Will 主 have Had 主 been Would 主 have been been +v-ing…? v-ing…？ 将来某时之 过去之前某一 过去将来某时之前 前某个动作 动作持续的长 动作或状态存在了 或状态存在 短或动作本身 了多久 多久 + +v-ing…?
+v-ing… Has/Have 疑问句 been 式 +v-ing…? 主
某种状态或动 意义 作持续了多久
标志性 for+ 时间段， for+ 时间段， by the end 的时间 since+时间点 since+时间点 状语 of… by the end of…
二、基本时态演练 1. Science still a cure for cancer. a doesn‘t find c hasn‘t found . . b haven‘t found d aren‘t finding . . 2. While he a route to the Indies, Columbus discovered America. a searched c had searched for . . b was discovering d was searching for . . 3. Existing reserves of fossil fuel by 2045. a have been run out c is going to be run out . .
b will have run out d have run out . . Only by investing heavily in value-added exports from the present trade imbalance. a the country can emerge c can the country emerge . . b the country might emerge d the country emerged . . th Until the 16 century the earth to be flat. a is believed c believed . . b has been believed d was believed . . If the temperature of the reactor 500C higher meltdown would have occurred. a was c was being . . b had been d had . . The lecturer said ? It ‘ s time you the literature review.‘ a began c should begin . . b begin d are beginning . . After your results you should make an appointment with your tutor. a you receiving c you have received . . b you would have received d you received . . You the experiment twice, not once. a should have carried out c haven‘t carried out . . b shouldn‘ t have carried out d couldn‘t have carried out . . The scientists were prohibited the danger zone. a to enter c enter
. b .
. d .
三、时态改错 1. People should act according to what they are believing. 2. In general, I think our government spent too much money on space travel. 3. These days, more and more people traveling to very distant places for their holidays. 4. I am hoping it is not too late to save the environment. 5. The female hen laying on average 5 or 6 eggs per week. 6. Younger drivers is more likely to be involved in a car accident. 7. Most doctors are agreeing that the only way to lose weight is by doing more exercise.
第二讲 语态 一、被动语态的形式
一般 主 am/is/are 主 现在 + v-ed… 过去 主
进行 am/is/are 主
完成 has/have been
was/were 主 was/were being 主 had been +v-ed…
+v-ed… 主 将来 +v-ed… 将来完 主 would be will be
+v-ed… 主 will have been × +v-ed… 主 would have been × +v-ed…
can/could/may/might/shall/should/will/would/must/ 词 have to/ought to + be + v-ed… 不定式 …to be +v-ed…; to have been +v-ed
二、被动语态使用情景 （一）一般说来，当强调动作承受者，不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者 时，多用被动式 1. I agree with the statement that there should be no government restriction on creative artists who express themselves in the way they do and that they must be given freedom for the same. (IELTS 4, Band 7, p167) 2. There is almost everything good in what is given to us through the media world which is made up of artists. (同上) 3. In conclusion, I strongly agree with that children should be taught to cooperate rather than compete. (IELTS 5, Band 6, p167) 4. It was opened in the year 1863, and it is already 140 years old. (IELTS 5, Band 7, p168)
（二）在描述事件和客观事实的时候，被动语态用得更多 1. The use of electricity in England is indispensed with. (IELTS 4, Band 6, p164) 2. Demand for electricity in England during typical days in winter and summer is illustrated in the graph. (同上) 3. The use of average English home is shown in the pie chart. (同上)
（三）主语是泛指很多人或者大部分人这个方面 1. A more dramatic rise is predicted between 2030 and 2040 in Japan, by which it is thought that the proportion of elderly people will be similar in the three countries. (IELTS 5, model answer, p162) 2. It can be argued that… It is advised/believed/universally accepted/generally recognized that… It is said/reported/estimated that…
（四）当上下文已经说明了动作执行者时： A law was introduced to help protect people in this situation.
（五）动作的执行者并不重要时： In the factory, the shoes are cleaned and packed into boxes ready for sale.
（六）需要体现动作的执行者时，加 by-短语： A lot of waste materials could be recycled by large manufacturers.
三、改写 1. To enrich vocabulary, we should read more authentic materials. 可以改为： 2. I am not sure whether all the college graduates can find jobs after graduation. 可以改为：
4. 用适当的动词形式完成下列句子： （1）My home _____________ (locate) in the western part of the city. （2）These funds can _____________ (give) to the poorer people to help them. （3）We _____________ (not tell) that the rules had changed. （4）Children need to _____________ (teach) the correct way to behave in public.
5. 句子改错： （1）The house was sell for over a million dollars. （2）The class has allowed to eat in the staff dining room during the renovations.
（3）The potatoes carry along a conveyor belt to a room where they wash and peel. （4）The teacher told to take her class out of the school if the fire bell rang. （5）Smoking don‘t allow in any part of the aeroplane. （6）The museum was being renovating when we were there, so we could not visit it. （7）Bus tickets can buy at any newsagents. （8）New employees have instructed not to operate the photocopier until they are trained.
6. 把下面的句子改成被动语态，并决定是否需要带 by-短语 （1）A factory worker checks each box for quality.
（2）The government does not permit children under 16 to work.
（3）The washing machine is washing your clothes at the moment.
（4）A mechanic will repair your car this afternoon.
（5）The agent has sold our house at last.
（6）Something tore the back of my coat.
（7）The employer pay off the staff more for working at the weekend.
（8）Burning tires give off highly toxic chemicals.
第三讲 虚拟语气 请欣赏下列一首诗歌： If you were a teardrop in my eye, For fear of losing you, I would never cry. And if the golden sun should cease to shine its light, Just one smile from you would make my whole world bright.
一、虚拟语气基本句型 虚拟时间 与现在事实 相反 与过去事实 相反 与将来事实 had done/ had be en did/were to/shou would (should, could, might) ha ve done/ been would (should, could, might) do
if 从句谓语形式 did/ were
主句谓语形式 would (should, could, might) do
ld + do
1. 与现在事实相反 (1) If she were sick, she could stay at home and have a rest today. (2) If you watched more and talked less, we would both enjoy our film. 2. 与过去事实相反 (1) If they had studied earlier, they would have passed the IELTS. (2) Helen would have graduated with her class if she had been able to meet all the requirements in time. 3. 与将来事实相反 (1) If it snowed tomorrow, I would go skiing. (2) If it should snow tomorrow, I would go to make a snowman in front of our dormitory. (3) If you were to see your tutor, what would you tell him? 4．错综的虚拟语气 (1) If I were you, I wouldn ‘t have told that to her. （时间错综： 从句现在，主句过去） (2) Had I taken my umbrella with me in the morning, I should not be wet now. (时间错综：从句过去，主句现在) 5．虚拟语气的倒装 可以把条件句中的 if 省略掉，同时把 should, were, had 等助动词提 前，构成倒装句。 请把下面的句子变成倒装虚拟条件句 (1) （现在） If there were no air, there would be no life around the
(2) （过去） If he had been older, he might have understood this question.
(3) （将来） If this were to happen again, you would be punished severely.
(4)（将来＋现在） If you should have any questions, feel free to call me.
二、虚拟语气——特殊名词性从句（从句动词用 should + v 原形） 1、（动词后面接宾语从句） Jian（坚 词义 持、建议、 推荐） 词汇 advise 建 decree 裁 ask 要求 议 argue 张 决 主 determine 决 command agree 令 意 同 决（定） 要（求） 命（令） 其他
desire 要 命 求
direct 命 arrange 安 排 命 intend 打 算
意 demand 要 令 求 意 plead 求 order 请 令
insist 坚 resolve 持 maintain 决
主张 recommend 建议 propose 提议 suggest 建 议 prefer 提 出 urge 敦促
规定 rule 裁决
pray 恳求 request 请求 beg 恳求
2、名词后面接表语从句或者同位语从句 Jian advice 建议 recommendation Jue decision 决定 resolution 决定 Yao demand 要求 pray 请求 Ming order 命令 command 命令 要 necessity 必 要 性
建 议 suggestion determination 决 requirement 建议 proposal 建议 motion 提议 定 求 propose 要求 desire 要求
preference 提 出 要求 command 要求 三、考试——虚拟的语气，真实的分数 1、听力中的虚拟语气
(1) Either way we would have been rewarded because we fell upon amazing, high meadows, huge gorges and wonderful snow-capped mountains. (IELTS 2, Listening) (2) I suppose if we were to do it all again, we‘d probably hire donkeys along the way. (IELTS 2, Listening) (3) It is important that you know roles of the jobs. (IELTS 2, Listening) (4) And if you had to give the new directors some specific advice when they set up the channel, what advice would you give them? (IELTS 2, Listening) 2、写作中的虚拟语气 (1) If they could raise them to be considerate of others and to be social, responsible individuals, the whole community would benefit (IELTS 4, Writing) (2) High quality nursery schools could be established that would support families more in terms of raising the next generation. (IELTS 4, Writing) (3) In conclusion, I strongly agree with that children should be taught to cooperate rather than compete. (IELTS 5, writing) (4) If this were not true, then we would be able to predict the behavior and character of a person from the moment they were born. (IELTS 5, writing) (5) Without the natural talent, continuous training would be neither attractive nor productive, and without the training, the child would
not learn how to exploit and develop their talent. (IELTS 7, Writing) (6) If sufficient sky trains and underground train systems were built and effectively maintained in our major cities, then traffic on the roads would be dramatically reduced. (IELTS 8, Writing) (7) Long-term traffic and pollution reductions would depend on educating the public to use public transport more, and on government using public money to construct and run efficient systems. (IELTS 8, Writing) 3、思考题： Overall the table suggests that households of single adults and those with children were more likely to be living in poverty than those consisting of couples. (IELTS 5, Writing) 这句是不是虚拟语气？为什 么
第四讲 主谓一致 一、雅思中常见的不可数名词 advice, advertising, food, furniture, garbage, information, knowledge, money, shopping, time, traffic, travel 等 可数名词与不可数名词对比： 量 所有 可数名词 All (of) 不可数名词 All (of)
大量的 Lots of/plenty of/a lot of Lots of/plenty of/a lot of Many (of) Much (of)
Most (of) A large/considerable/substa ntial number of 中量
Most (of) A large/considerable/substa ntial amount of
Some (of)/a certain number Some of/a certain amount of of
几乎没 No/not any/none of 有
No/not any/none of
二、改错（每句话可能不止一个错误） 1. My tutor was very helpful; he gave me one very good advice about how to study. 2. I was surprised by the number of times it took us to reach the castle. 3. You need a great deal of knowledges to become a doctor. 4. The informations we were given by the tour guide were not very helpful. 5. When we visited the park, we were upset to see so manage garbages left there. 6. We arrived late because there were so many traffic on the road. 7. I can‘t wait to visit the market and do a few shopping. 8. The furnitures in the hotel room were quite old but they were very comfortable.
第一讲 不定式 一、…verb + to do sth agree, aim, appear, arrange, attempt, be able, be likely, claim, decide, deserve, fail, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, seem, tend, try
二、…verb + sb. + to do sth. Advise, allow, encourage, force, get, persuade, remind, teach, tell, warn
三、…verb + to do sth/…verb + sb. + to do sth Ask, choose, dare, expect, help, intend, need, prefer, prepare, want
四、Complete these sentences from the recording by using the verbs in brackets. Listen again and check your answers. 1. I decided _______________(do) an animal management course. 2. I chose _______________(study) at Fairfield College because it‘ s got a good range of animals and everyone‘s really friendly. 3. The course is only three days a week, so I ‘ ve already started _______________(work) part-time at a pet shop.
4. I prefer _______________(take) time so I can get to know them. 5. I don‘t even mind _______________(clean) them out. 6. They have let us _______________ (treat) some minor problems, like removing splinters from paws. 7. The make us _______________(handle) all kinds of animals including spiders and snakes. 8. I remember _______________ (feel) really scared. 9. As long as you remember _______________(do) it the way you have been taught, it‘s fine. 10. Before, if I heard him _______________(bark), I just told him _______________(be) quiet. 11. I‘d really like _______________(work) in either a zoo or a safari park.
一、…verb + (prep.) + doing sth avoid, approve of, can‘t help/resist/stand, carry on, consider, deny, don‘t mind, enjoy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, include, insist on, involve, keep, mention,, mind, practise, putt off, recommend, resist, suggest, think of/about
二、…verb + to do sth/…verb + doing sth 意义差别不大： Attempt, begin, start, bother, continue, hate, like, love, prefer,
三、…verb + to do sth/…verb + doing sth 意义有区别的： …verb …remember + to do sth + doing sth
记得要去做某事：As long as 记 得 做 过 某 事 ： I remember you remember to do what you feeling really scared. have been told, it‘s fine.
忘记要去做某事： I forgot to 忘 记 做 过 某 事 ： I ‘ ll never post my application form. forget meeting you that cold winter‘s day.
遗憾要做某事： I regret to 后 悔 做 了 某 事 ： I regret tell you that I‘ll leave. telling him the truth,
because he didn‘t talk to me any longer. …go on 继 续 做 另 一 件 事 情 ： After 继续做同一件事情： She went on university she went on to talking even though the film get a job as a vet. …stop had started.
停下来去做某事： I stopped 停止做某事： I‘ m going to stop to ask the direction. studying for a while.
尽力做某事： I try to find 尝试做某事：She tried adding out why he‘s barking. a bit more sugar but it still
tasted horrible. ...need 需要做某事：I need to mend 需要被做某事： My jeans need my jeans. mending.
四、特殊词汇的使用 advise/allow/forbid/permit/encourage doing sth advise/allow/forbid/permit/encourage sb to do sth
五、雅思 1、句子改错 （1）I suggest you going and doing your homework now if you want to watch TV later.
（2）My parents always made me to clean up my room when I was young.
（3）I think people shouldn‘t be allowed using mobile phone in the cinema.
（4）Nowadays, it is forbidden smoking in many restaurants and public areas.
（5）After a lot of efforts, I finally made work my new DVD Players.
（6）The police advised local residents not to leaving their windows open at night.
（7）These tickets will permit you enter the museum and many things as you like it.
（8）Our teacher suggested to go to the park at the end of the party. 2、根据词的正确形式填空 （1）Nowadays, many people want to stop _____________ (work) too hard and enjoy life. （2） Did you remember _____________ (buy) candles for the birthday cake? （3）The burglar tried _____________ (open) the window with a knife, but couldn‘t get in. （4）Don‘t forget _____________ (post) the card to your grandmother when you are away. （5）At 12 o‘clock every day the builders stopped _____________ (have) a lunch break. （6）I will never forget _____________ (visit) the pyramids on our trip to Egypt. （7）The cook tried _____________ (add) more salt but the soup was too bland. （8）I remember _____________ (walk) across the road but I have no idea how I ended up in the hospital.
一、分词 意义 现 在 分 词 : 主动/进行 v-ing 过 去 分 词 : 被动/完成 v-ed 二、分词的功能 （一）作表语 意义 例子 例子 developing countries; falling leaves; boiling water developed countries; fallen leaves; boiled water
现 在 分 词 : 表 示 ’ 令 interesting, surprising, encouraging, v-ing 人……的?， disappointing, 常用来指物 exciting, pleasing,
satisfying, exhausting, pressing surprised, encouraged,
过 去 分 词 : 表 示 ’ 感 interested,
到……的?， disappointed, 常用来指人
satisfied, exhausted, pressed
1. The fact that many animals are used in medical research is sickening. 2. Playing computer games is time-consuming. 3. Riding a bike is energy-saving. 4. Along with the rapidly economic development, the number of people who ride bicycles is decreasing. 5. Our city is becoming increasingly crowded due to the expanding population and the sharp rise in the number of private cars. 6. Our natural energy will soon be depleted / exhausted if we pay no attention to the conservation of it.
（二）作定语 1、单个分词作定语，放在被修饰的名词之前；分词短语作定语，放在被修饰 的名词之后 an increasing problem… a growing number/concern… 1. The deteriorating environment has aroused people‘s wide concern. 2. The worsening health condition of youths has been brought into public focus. 3. The media sometimes give misguiding and cheating messages. 4. Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job
or promotion opportunities. 5. Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems ， such as global warming ， but also could threaten to end human life on our planet.
分词短语作定语，相当于该名词后的定语从句，改写下面的句子： （ 1）As a result, the service provided to the guests was below the standard promised to them.
（2）Nowadays, it is common for a TV-broadcast NBA game to have billions of people sitting in front of that little screen cheering for their
其他： （3） A pressing （单个现在分词作前置定语） issue facing （which is facing） us is that a growing（单个现在分词作前置定语） amount of trash is being produced day and night. （4）A problem vexing us （which is vexing us）is that many rare species are on the verge of extinction. （5）Smoking（动名词作主语） is an addictive menace, posing（现在分 词作伴随状语） a health hazard not only for smokers but also for people surrounding the smoker – passive smokers. （ 6 ） Without strict discipline, children are unlikely to be
well-behaved and well-cultivated people. （7）The extra money obtained from part-time jobs will strongly support students to continue（不定式作补语）their study.
2、分词可以与其他词构成合成性形容词，作定语 现在分词 a good-looking boy far-reaching effects/influence/impacts on… earth-shaking changes a breath-taking movie a back-breaking job a weather-beaten man snow-covered mountains a method/treatment 3、现在分词作定语与动名词作定语的差别 动名词作定语： a sleeping car a swimming pool 现在分词作定语：a sleeping man a swimming frog 动名词作定语，与被修饰的名词构成合成词，表示的是该名词的功能或用途 现在分词作定语，表示的是该名词的现在的状态 a walking girl a reading student a walking stick a reading room newly-introduced 过去分词 simply-furnished/equipped room tailor-made suit/courses
1. A homeowner can get hurt trying to use the wrong kind of extinguisher
on an electrical fire.
2. Facing the Atlantic, it is on the northeastern coast of the United States, and most of the city is built on islands. 3. Freed from TV, forced to find their activities, they might take a ride together to watch the sunset. 4. Over 800 full-time teachers are employed in England and Wales today,
maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses.
5. Spending all their time working to a rigid curriculum, the passing of examinations by their pupils gradually became the whole object of their working life. 6. While helping animals, we are helping ourselves too.（时间状语） 7. Living in the country, people have few social visits and lack entertainment and recreation facilities.（原因状语） 8. We should help the wildlife and bring threatened （过去分词作前 置定语） species into captivity to breed them （不定式作目的状语）, thus increasing the population of those species. （结果状语） 9. Part-time jobs can produce a far-reaching （现在分词作定语）impact on students, benefiting students, their families and even the society as a whole.（伴随状语） 10. Sent to study overseas, some students are reported to fail to adapt to the local life and even commit suicide. （时间状语）
11. Deeply influenced by excessive pornography and violence on the Internet, some teenagers go astray.（原因状语）
（四）作补语 下列动词可以加分词作补语：现在分词表主动，过去分词表被动 一听：hear 二看：see，watch 三让：have，have，make 注意：notice；观察：observe；感觉：feel Some parents find their children experimenting with drugs. I find the real situation frustrating. Television not only presents a vivid world to us, but also keeps us well-informed of the latest development in all fields. We should have the waste properly disposed of.
三、现在分词的完成式：表示它发生在主句谓语动词表示的动作之前 Having finished his homework, he went to see a film. 四、现在分词的被动式：当句子的主语是动作的承受者时，用 v-ing 形式的 被动式 The factory being built now is a big one. 五、现在分词的否定形式是由’not + 现在分词?构成 Not having been invited to the party, she had to stay home.
第三章 句子结构及句子种类 第一讲 句子种类 一、根据句子的功能分类 （一）陈述句 1、肯定陈述 2、否定陈述 （二）疑问句 1、一般疑问句 2、特殊疑问句 3、选择疑问句 4、附加疑问句 （三）祈使句 （四）感叹句 二、根据句子的结构分类 （一）简单句：S+V… （二）并列句：S+V…, and/as well//but/yet/or/while/whereas S+V… （三）复合句：S+V…从属连词+s+v…；从属连词+s+v…, S+V… 三、根据句子成分分类 （一）S + Vi. （二）S+V+SC （三）S+V+O （四）S+V+O2+O1=S+V+O1+prep+O2
第二讲 句式结构——五大句式结构 五大句式结构 （一）S + Vi. （二）S+V+SC （三）S+V+O （四）S+V+O2+O1=S+V+O1+prep+O2 （五）S+V+O+OC 句子分析，并确定下列句子分别属于上面哪种句式结构 1. The graph shows the increase in the ageing population in Japan, Sweden and the USA. (IELTS 5) 2. I am really sorry about that. (IELTS 5) 3. Certainly nobody wants to see our resources used up and our planet poisoned by waste. (IELTS 4) 4. Just like movie stars, they live extravagant lifestyles with huge houses and cars. (IELTS 4) 5. So the notion of ’fairness? is not the issue. (IELTS 4) 6. Unfortunately it is all taking longer than expected and I have been having problems with getting things to fit properly. 7. In spite of some fluctuation of the percentages, the proportion of older people will probably increase in the next decades in the three
countries. (IELTS 5) 8. Competition is constant and a player is tested every time they perform in their relatively short career. (IELTS 4) 9. The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. (IELTS 4) 10. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or traveling to other places have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on. (IELTS 5) 11. It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after graduating from high school. (IELTS 5) 12. Those people who believe they have achieved some security by doing the same, familiar things are living in denial. (IELTS 4) 13. Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new things are prompted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. (IELTS 4) 14. I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. (IELTS 4) 15. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences is an important part of a child‘s development that cannot be provided by a computer. (IELTS 4)
一、名词性从句 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从 句 从属连词 s + v S+V 从属 s + v +V… It 辨认方式 +adj./n./v-e d that… 主语 for that… 陈述事 实结构 完整 ’ 否? 是 Whether (or not); if 不可以引导 主语从句 主语是 人 主语时 物 宾语是 who, whom 人 what, which 宾语是
S+LV+ 从 属 名
Prep.+ 从 属 连 s + v… + be 词 s+v take it granted
… whether … (or not); 或者 if
从 属 连 词 的 选 择
物 定语是 人 定语是 物 状语 表时间：when；表地点：where；表原因： why； 表方式，how 实战： students should get a job or have a travel for one year before starting their university education. 用主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句重写上面的句子： 主语从句：It is +adj. /n./adv + v-ed that… whose which
表语从句：形容词物主代词+观点名词+is + that…
1. Nowadays consumers
become more and more practical
buy only _______ they need. A. where D. what
2. She d like to offer money to ________ needs it to continue his or her study. A. who C. whoever D. whomever B. whom
3. ---If you are admitted to a key university, _________ as a prize? --- I‘m looking for a cell phone.
A. What you expect your father will offer you B. Do you expect what your father will offer you C. What do you expect will your father offer you D. What do you expec t your father will offer you 4. Yesterday he sold out all his stamps at ____ he thou ght was a reasonable . which 5. Generally speaking, price. C. what A. that D. as B
____ we have seen seems more belie
vable than ____ we have been told. A. what; that . that; that 6. After three days ‘ in the mother s mind _______ the police could find her lost child. A. how D. whether 7. ―
B. what; what
C. that; what
waiting, there was a little doubt ‘
Sustainable development ‖ tinue developing . A. why
is a question _______
we can con
the world without damaging the environment
B. when D. how 8. We
C. that ‘ A. ho
d like to do _______ we can _________ the poor. w; help
B. all; to help
C. whatever; help p 9. My parents used ________they r my brother. C. what A. which D. 不填
D. however; to hel
had to get a new car fo B. all what
10. She was so angry at all ________ he was doing _____ ____ she stayed up all night. A. that; that that B. that; which C. what; seemed ag
D. what; as 11. After _________ A. there
es, the newsman disclosed the facts. B. which hat C. what
12. Our school is no longer _________ it was 10 years a go, _________ it was not well equipped. A. what; which B. that; which C. what; when
D. that; where 13. Our bad living habits will destroy the earth. Only b y changing ________we A. that D. where 14. Thinking that you know _________ in fact you don t is a serious mistake C. when A. what D. however A. what D. a B. that ‘ live can we save the earth. B. what C. how
15. Energy is _________ makes things work. B. everything nything C. something
16. One of the men held the view __________the was right. C. that 17. I think that A. that what D. whether
B. what that
this meal was well worth ________ B. what
charged for it. A. that
D. how many 18. Do you think the reason _______ _ he gave is believable? A. for which B. which C. why D. what
19. Although he knew little about the large amount of wo rk done in the field, he succeeded ________ other more w ell-informed experimenters C. what failed. D. where
20. Although Anne
is happy with her success she wonders__
______ will happen to her private life. A. it at B. that D. this C. wh
21. The news has spread all over the country ________ th e spaceship succeeded A. that in returning to the earth. C. whether D.
what 22. You can choose ________ book you like among t hese. A. no matter what D. whichever 23. Is this research center ________ we visited the moder B. that D. which B. whatever C. whose
n equipment last year? A. where C. the one
24. Loulan city is not at all _______a traveler who has never seen the desert before can expect. A. what B. that D. where 25. What the doctor is uncertain about is ______ my moth er will recover from the serious disease soon. A. when er D. why B. how C. wheth C .which
26. We should buy our daughter a computer in ______ it
can help to improve A. which t
her English. B. that D. whom C. wha
27. I wish to have a friend with ______ shares my hobbi es and interests. C. whoever 28. Why don t you bring _______ usy to do it. A. whomever D. anyone ‘ to his attention that you are too b A. this C. that B. what D. it B. no matter who
29. The task required _______ did it ______ careful and brave enough. A. who; is ; was C. whomever; were B. whom D. whoever; be
30. We wrote a letter of thanks to _______ had helped u s. whom A. who B. those D. whoever C.
二、形容词性从句——定语从句 （一）定义及功能 后置修饰性从句，用来修饰名词、代词、名词短语、句子或句子的一部分 （二）分类 形式 1 形式 2 功能
限定性定语从 无逗号 句 非限定性定语 有逗号 从句 例子： He _________________________________________ is not a true man. He _____________________________ laughs best. You are suggested to visit the Great Wall, which is one of the most magnificent masterpieces of man in the world. This is my wife, who is fat. （三）识别 1、构成： 先行词+关系词/从属连词（关系代词/关系副词）+定语从句（缺少主语/宾语 /定语/状语） 2、关系词： 关系代词：who, whom, whose, that, which 关系副词：when, where, why=prep. + which 3、关系词的功能： （1）指代被修饰的先行词； （2）作从属连词； （3）在定语从句中充当某一必要成分（主语、宾语、定语、状语） 4、关系词的选择 从句分类 限定性定语从句 非限定性定语从句
可以用 that 绝不可以用 that
提供必要信息 提供非必要信 息
先行项是 先行项分类 主语 宾语 t/-定语 状语 whose which whose/n. + of whose which whose/n. + of 先行项是人 who>that 先行项是物 人 that>which who who/whom which which 先行项是物
时间状语 when； 地点状语 where； 原因状语 why = prep + which
（四）that 与 which 的区别 （五）as 引导的定语从句 1、当先行词被 such/so/the same…as 修饰时，定语从句的关系代词一般使 用 as。不过，有时候 the same 修饰先行词时，定语从句的关系代词也可以使 用 that。例如： It's such a difficult problem as nobody can work out. It's so difficult problem as nobody can work out. They are such difficult problems as nobody can work out. 2、as 引导非限制性定语从句，指代整个主句内容，从句可置于句首，句中或 句尾 As everyone knows ,China is a beautiful country with a long history . The earth , as we know , moves round the sun . Tom works hard and is willing to help others, as we all know. 3、as 引导非限制性定语从句，有’如，似，正像?的含义，因此，下列句式
多用 as as has been said above 如上所说 as anybody can see 正像每个人所看到的那样 as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样 如：The boy has as much progress as we had expected. 雅思 A 类写作 Task1 图表写作常用句型： As is shown/indicated in the graph/chart/table… As can be noticed in the graph/from the facts/data… Sa can be concluded from the above graph… As we can conclude/notice from the above graph…
（六）雅思——把下面的两个句子连接成含有定语从句的一个句子 （1）The trend is not restricted to rich students. Rich students have the money to travel.
（2）A young adult is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. A young adult passes directly from school to university.
（3）Those have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on. Those have spent some time earn a living or travelling to other places.
（4）They tend to be more independent. This is a very important factor in academic study and research.
（ 5 ） This is less likely today. Today academic qualifications are essential for getting a reasonable career.
（6）A more dramatic rise is predicted between 2030 and 2040 in Japan. By this time it is thought that the proportion of elderly people will be similar in the three countries.
（7）The table gives a breakdown of the different types of family. They were living in poverty in Australia in 1999.
（8）I think the solution to the problem lies with the families. They need to be more aware of the future consequences of spoiling their children. 1. His parents wouldn t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose her heart
2. She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought
into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that
3. In the dark street ,
t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom
4. The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was m ore than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it to t
5.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned he small town ____ he grew up as a child. A. which B. where C. that
6 ． Carol said the work would be done by October, ＿personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which
7 ． Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of A．who course , made the others unhappy. C．this D．what Chinese vase , _____ was
8. Recently I bought an ancient very reasonable. A. which price
B. the price of which
C. its pr
ice D. the price of whose
9._____ has already been pointed a set of dead rules. A. As B. It C. That
grammar is not
10. He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some A. this B. which English. C. that D. same 11. Oh th
e wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A. whose B. of which C. which D. its
12.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like h is sweet and hopeful smile. A. what B. which C. that D. when
13. The visitor asked the guide to take his picture ____ _ stands the famous tower. A. that B. where C. which D. there
14.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A. in which e 15. I don t like _____ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that y of which 16.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I g ot wet through .
B. in that
C. in whose
D. whos ‘
C. the way which
D. the wa
A. It ‘ s the reason s why D. It‘s how
B. That ‘ s why
C. There ‘
17. He made another importance to science. A. which I think is which I think it
wonderful discovery , ____ of great
B. which I think it is D.I think which is
18.He was very rude to the customs officer, ____ of cour se made things even worse. A. who B. whom C. what D. which
20. The farmer uses wood to build a house ___ to store grain. A. in which B. where C. which
D. with which 21. I will invite _______ my daughter lo ves. A. whoever C. whichever B. whomever D. whatever
22.You can buy as many copies of this book ___ you want s. or which 23. Tom ate more A. that food _______ was good for his health. B. as C. than D. which A. that B. which C. as D. f
24. He was hiding behind the door _________ he could see what was happening. A. which B. from where C from which D. where
25. She wore, _______ was very uncommon in the country, a red garment. A. what t =She wore a red garment , _______ was very uncommon in the country. 26. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. A. for which D. on which 27. ______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between t he two countries As are making progress. D. What A. It B. B. at which C. in which B. that C. which D. i
28. The journey around the world took the old sailor nin e months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. A. of wh ich which 29. I work in a business is waiting for a great chance. A. how B. which C. where D. that almost everyone B. during which C. from which D. for
30. There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she ha
d wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that
31. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to t he others , vy him . A. who , of course , made the others en B. that C. what
D. which 32. ________ is often the case, production plan. A. Which s 33. Anyway, that evening, ____ I ‘ B. When C. What D. A we have worked out the
ll tell you more hel‘s place. A. when 34. A story goes
about later, I ended up staying at Rac
______ Elizabeth I of England liked not by clever and qualified n
hing more that being surrounded oblemen at court. A. when hat B. where
35. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes e very year , 80% A．of which 36.There was B．which of time are sold abroad . C．of them D．of that
I hated to go to s
chool . A．a; that B．a; when C．the; that D．the when
37. There are two buildings , ly a hundred feet high . r of them C ． the larger one that A ． the larger
stands near B ． the large
D ． the larger of which
hat surprised me was not what he said but he said it . C．in the way A．the way B．in the way that
D．the way which
39. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom
40. George Orwell, _______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many po litical novels and essays. A. the real nameB. what his real name C. his real n
ame D. whose real name 1-5DBDBB 6-10DBBAB 11-15ABBCA 16-20 BADAA 21-25 BCCBC 26-30CBACA 31-35DDDDA 36-40BDADD
三、副词性从句——状语从句 （一）定义 由从属连词引导的分句，相当于一个副词 （二）分类 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从
句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句、方式状语从句等 （三）位置 状语从句位置比较灵活，可以置于句首、句中、句末 （四）用法 状语从句在句中相当于副词做状语,又叫副词性从句。 状语从句分为时间状语 从句、条件状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、让步 状语从句、结果状语从句和比较状语从句。掌握状语从句应当引导词入手， 注意引导词的词义,引导状语从句的引导词都有词思,所以,了解引导词的意 思尤为重要。引导词按意义分为九类: 1) when nce 2)地点 where 3)原因 because 4) if , unless 5) though , whatever that, ... as as (--ever) in that .. if as order as, , once .so , as , since 条 (as)long 让 even though, even if as . in case 步 , now that 件 , as , while , till , 时 until , before, after , 间 si
6)目的 so 7)结果 so
8)比较 than, 9)方式 as ,
（1） It is also close to the railway line linking the two towns to Crandson. A potentially large number of shoppers would also be able to travel by train. (as)
（2）The experiences we have in our life are unpredictable and powerful. They can boost or even override other influences. (so…that…)
（3）We buy fresh food without packaging. We still produce rubbish from the plastic bags used everywhere to carry shopping home. (even if)
（4）Happiness is difficult to define. It means so many different things to different people. (because)
（5）There are different kinds of happiness for different individuals. The first step in achieving it would be to have a degree of self-knowledge. (if)
（6）They get to school age. They have not learnt any self control or discipline. (when)
（7）I know you have always liked this furniture. I could let you have
it at a good price. (so)
（8）Some people think this may be damaging to a child‘s development. There are many advantages to having school experience at a young age. (while) 填入适当的引导词完成句子 1.____ will do the experiment comes to the professor's office . 2. ___ will do the experiment hasn't been decided .
3. The teacher didn't leave ______ twelve o'clock . 4. ______ the day went on , the weather got worse .
5. _____ she is young , she knows quite a lot . 6.It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey .
7. You will be late ____ you leave immediately. 8.Go and get your coat . It's ______ you left it . 9.______ is mentioned above , the number of the stude nts in senior high schools is increasing . 10. ____ had I entered the room ____ the phone rang .
1.Whoever 2. Who 3.until 4.As 5.Although 6.that 7.unless 8 .where 9.As 10 Hardly, when ( No sooner , than ) 找出从句并指出是那类从句 1. It depends 2.The question on whether we have enough time . he asked was where the electrical equip
ment should be stored. 3. The mountain is no longer what it used to be .
4. The fact that she works hard is well known to us all . 5. He was not the man that he was before . 6. Now you was free , why not go swimming with us ? 7. Where there are schools and colleges , there are examinations . 8. Bad habits , once firmed , are difficult up . 9.She often wears the same kind of skirt as her twin sister does . 10 .The moment he opened the window , a bird flew in . 答案： 1.whether we have enough time 介词宾语从句 2.he asked 定 语 从 句
where the electrical
equipment should be stored 表语从句
3.what it used to be 表语从句 4. that she works hard 同位语从句 5. that he was before 定语从句 6.Now you was free 让步状语从句 now= now that 7.Where there are schools and colleges 地点状语从句 8. once firmed 时间状语从句 9. as her twin sister does 定语从句
10.The moment he opened the window 时间状语从句 第四讲 倒装句式 一、定义 正常句子顺序是：主语+谓语 倒装顺序：谓语/助动词+主语+（实义动词） 二、分类 （一）全部倒装：整个谓语+主语+… （二）部分倒装：助动词+主语+实义动词… 三、用法 （一）全部倒装：整个谓语+主语+… 1、Next came central heating ownership, rising from 37% of households in 1972 to 64% in 1983. (IELTS 2) 2、Of crucial importance, in my opinion, is how we define ’responsible for bringing the children up?. (IELTS 2) 3、There are bloody contents, violence and pornography in the Internet.
4、Well-known is that energy crisis poses a threat to the society. 5、With globalization have come many problems. （二）部分倒装：助动词+主语+实义动词… 1、 否定词或者具有否定意义的词置于句首： not only…but also; by no means; under no circumstances; hardly/scarcely…when; so sooner…than…/on no account/in no case/by no means/at no time （1）Overall we can see that not only are there very large differences between the two economies but that these gaps are widening. (IELTS 3) （2）Never has this topic failed to fascinate people. （3）Under no circumstance do I agree this point of view. （ 4 ） Not only does studying in school serve academic purpose, but students learn how to handle interpersonal relations. （ 5） Seldom can a factory be established without contaminating the living space of our city‘s inhabitants to some degree. 2、only +单词、词组、状语从句位于句首，表示唯一条件时，句子进行部分 倒装。 （1）Only through education can we rise in the world. （2）Only then can we say that this problem is finally settled. (3) Only after they have been cheated by irresponsible
advertisements do people realize that they should not always rely on whatever these advertisements say. 2 以否定意义状语开头，句子进行部 分倒装。 3、 so/as+部分倒装，表示与前面已经提到的肯定状况一致； neither/nor+
部分倒装，表示与前面提到过的否定状况一致 （1）Success teaches us something about ourselves. So does failure. （2）Economic success is not the only factor in achieving happiness, neither is social status 4、always \ often \ particularly \ many times \ many a time 放在句 首时，句子进行部分倒装。 Always am I amazed when I teachers. 5、状语从句中的部分倒装 （1）结果状语从句——属于全部倒装：so that 引导的结果状语从句可用倒 装。 So severe is this problem that we have no alternative but to take some feasible. The power of media is so great that they have changed our way of thinking more or less. 改成倒装句 hear people saying that computers can replace
（2）条件状语从句的倒装 If the computer had been invented earlier, our world today would have been more developed.
（3） 让步状语从句由 though 或 as 引导时可用倒装， 将表语放在句子最前面。 Fascinating as computers utilized in education seem, teachers‘ roles are more imperative.
把下面两个句子改成倒装： Although man is clever, he has not yet understood the secrets of his mind.
Although we have tried, we still have a long way to go before we can finally resolve this [problem. （4）比较状语从句中的倒装 In a typical example, when viewing photographs of food, hungry subjects experience a much larger increase in pupil diameter than sated subjects experience. In a typical example, when viewing photographs of food, hungry subjects experience a much larger increase in pupil diameter than do sated subjects. 1 ． ---You forgot your purse when you went out 。 ood heavens， B. so I did. . A. so did I. ---G
C. I did so.
D. I so did. 2. Only when the war was over town. A. did the young soldier return to his home B. the young D.
C. returned the young soldier
the young soldier
did return at yesterday‘s party. C. did she sing D.
3. Not a single song A. she sang she did sing 4. Little B. sang she
about his own safety, though A. does he care B.
he was in great danger himself. did he care 5. I C. he cares
D. he cared ‘
ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no mea ns ot satisfied with my progress. B. is the teacher A. the teacher is n not satisfied C. t satisfie
he teacher is satisfied d 6.
D. is the teacher
homework did we have to do that we had
no time to take a rest. A. So much little 7. Never in my wildest dreams hat I decided to ask Tom for advice. imagine B. could I imagine C. I couldn these people t A. I could ‘ B. Too much C. Too little D. So
t imagine D. couldn‘t I imagine 8.Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else such a beautiful palace. A. can you
B. you could find C. you can find D. could you find , some large enough A. stand many lakes B.
9. In the dark forests to hold several English towns. lie many lakes
C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand
10. Not until the early year of the 19th century what heat is. A. did man know
B. man knew C. I didn‘t know
D. I realized 11. ---Why hasn t Xiao Li come yet? . e 12.Scarcely arrived out to meet me. B. I had when did he come A. he is --- Look! There B. is he C. he comes D. comes h ‘
A. had I; before he came
C. had I; when he came
D. I had; then did he
come 13. A. Up the cat jumped
and caught the mouse. B. The cat up jumped C. Up
jumped the cat D. Jumped up the cat 14. On no account rudeness from his employees. manager will tolerate A. the
B. the manager will not tolerate
C. will the manager tolerate
D. the manager tolerate 15. Now there is your turn to recite the text. B. has come C. comes D. will come A.
16. ______, I would have given you his address. A. If you asked me ad asked me C. Should you have asked me B. You h
D. Had you asked me 17. ______ I had time, I would have run round that lake again. Had A. If B. Unless D. When C.
18. ____, mother will wait for him to have dinner togeth er. A. However late is he wever is he late 19. ______， B. However he is late C. Ho
D. However late he is English. C. As yo
he has much experience in learning B. Young as he is
A. As is he young
ung he is
D. Young although he is
一、强调句型 为了强调句子的某一成分（通常是主语、宾语、或状语），常用强 调句型：It is (was) +被强调部分+that(who)… 表示强调的 it 在
句子中作主句的主语；被强调部分可以是主语，宾语，表语或状语；强调的 主语如果是人，that 和 who 都可用。如： Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace.
It was I that / who saw a film in the Youth Palace la st night. 强 调 宾 语 ：
It was a film that I saw in the Youth Palace last nigh t. 强 调 地 点 状 语 ：
It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last nigh t. 强 调 时 间 状 语 ：
It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palac e. 另外，还要注意下面几点： 1） 在强调主语时， that 后的谓语动词要与被强调者保持人称和数的一致。
如： It is I who am a teacher. 2）即使被强调的主语是复数，主句中的谓语动词也用单数。 如： It is they who often help me with my lessons. 3 ）在强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时，不能用 when ， where ， why 或 如： how ， 而 要 用 that 。
It was because her mother was ill that she didn't
go with us. It was only when I reread his poems recently that I b egan to appreciate their beauty. It was the house tha
t the murder happened. 4）在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语（或从句）表示的时 间 状 语 时 ， 要 用 固 定 的 强 调 句 型 ：
It is(was) not until ...that...
注意此时原句的 not…until 要变
成 not until ，that 从句中的谓语动词要用肯定式。如： My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. It was not until 12 o'clock last night that came home. I didn ‘ my father
t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses. It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. 二、用助动词 do 或其变化形式 does，did 来强调句中谓语动词，用来加强
陈述句和祈使句的语气，译作’的确?，’一定?，’确实?。如： He did send you a letter last week. We ‘
re pleased that she does intend to come. Do write to me when you get there． 三、用倒装句来加强语气。如： Only in this way can we solve this problem ． l China be the first to use nuclear weapons. Proud as these nobles are, they are afraid to see me . In front of the farmhouse there sat a little boy. 1. It was in New Zealand . Smith. A. that B. how C. which D. when Elizabeth first met Mr Never wil
2. It was along the Mississippi spent much of his childhood. C. that
River A. how
Mark Twain B. which
D. where 3. It was not until midnight amp site. A. that s
they reached the c
4. It was with great joy
he received the news A. because
that his lost daughter had been found. B. which C. since D. that
5. It was some time A. when B. until
we realized the truth. C. before D. since Jennifer realize
6. It was not until she got home d she had lost her keys. A. when B. that C. where
7. I just wonder A. why it does D. what it is
that makes him so excited. B. what he does C. how it is
8. It was after he got what he had desired realized it was not so important. when C. since D. As A. that
9. It is not who is right but what is right of importance. D. this 10. It weeks ntil; when t until; when A. which B. it
is C. that
we had stayed together for a couple of I found we had lot in common. B. was until; that C. wasn A. was u ‘
D. wasn‘t until; that
11. He was told that it would be at least three more months he could recover and return to work. A.
when 12. I don
D. that ‘
t mind her criticizing t that I object to. this 13. – D. which
me, but A. it
is how she does i B. that C.
Where did you get to know her? we worked. D. where A. that
It was B. th
on the farm ere C. which
14. It was not until she had arrived home appointment with the doctor. A. when she remembered B. and she remembered D. that she remembered information to find out A. who was it that killed killed C. it was who killed C. did she remember 15. The police were
the rich merchant. B. who it was that
D. who was it killed Mart A. whe
16. Was it near the building, if I may ask, in Luther King gave a speech I have a dream. re B. which C. that D. when