一、冠词 The Article 知识要点： 冠词是一种虚词，放在名词的前面，帮助说明名词的含义。冠词分不定冠词（The Indefinite Article） 和定冠词（The definite Article）两种。a (an) 是不定冠词，a 用在辅音之前：如 a book, a man; an 用在元音 之前，如：an old man, an hour, an interesting book 等。the 是定冠词。 一、不定冠词的用法 1、 指人或事物的某一种类 （泛指）这是不定冠词 a (an)的基本用法。 She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please 。 如： pass me an apple. 2、指某人或某物，但不具体说明何人或何物。如：He borrowed a story-book from the library. A Wang is looking for you. 一位姓王的同志正在找你。 3、表示数量，有“一”的意思，但数的概念没有 one 强烈。如： I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes. 4、用于某些固定词组中。如： a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time 等。 5、用在抽象名词前，表具体的介绍——a + 抽象名词，起具体化的作用。如： This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣。 It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情。 It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会，对我来说是一种荣誉。 二、定冠词的用法： 1、特指某（些）人或某（些）事物。这是定冠词 the 的基本用法。如： Beijing is the capital of China. The pen on the desk is mine. 2、指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。如： Where is the teacher? Open the window, please. 3、指上文提过的人或事物（第二次出现） 。如： There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms. The baby was thin. 4、用在世界上独一无二的事物前。如： the earth, the moon, the sun. 5、用在序数词和形容词最高级前。 （副词最高级前的定冠词可省略）如： He is always the first to come to school. Bob is the tallest in his class. 6、用在某些专有名词前（由普通名词构成的专用名词） 。如： the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children’s Palace, the Party 等。 7、用在一些习惯用语中。如： on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way 等。 8、用在江河湖海、山脉前。如： the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas 9、用在报刊、杂志前。如： the People’s Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报。 10、表示某一家人要加定冠词。如：
The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人。 11、用在形容词前，表某一类人。如： the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick 等。 12、定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处。如： The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car). 三、零冠词（即不用冠词） ： 1、专用名词和不可数名词前。如： China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science 等。 2、名词前已有作定语用的 this, that, my, your, some, any 等代词。如： Go down this street. 3、复数名词表示一类人或事物时。如： We are students. I like reading stories. 4、节日、日期、月份、季节前。如： Teachers’ Day, Children’s Day, National Day, in summer, in July 等。 Today is New Year’s Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women’s Day. 5、在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前，尤其作表语、宾补时。如： What’s the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor. 6、在某些习惯用语中的名词前。如： at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil 等。 7、在三餐饭和球类运动前。如： She goes to school after breakfast every morning. We are going to play football. We usually have lunch at school. 8、科目前不加。如： We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. 【专项训练】 ： 1、 We can’t live without air. A．an B．× C．the D．some 2、——Have you seen pen? I left it here this morning. ——Is it black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A．a; the B．the; the C．the; a D．a; a 3、I’ve been waiting for him for hour and half. A．×; × B．the; a C．a; the D．an; a 4、What fine weather we have today! A．a B．× C．some D．an 5、Have you ever seen as tall as this one? A．a tree B．such tree C．an tree D．tree 6、Children usually go to school at age of six. A．×; the B．a; an C．the; × D．the; the 7、 Himalayas is highest mountain in world. A．×; the;× B．The; the; the C．A; a; a D．×;×;×
8、They each have __book. Li Hua’s is about writer. Wang Lin’s is on science. A．a; a; × B．the; ×; the C．×; the; × D．a; the; a 9、 Physics is science of matter and energy. A．The; × B．×; × C．×; the D．A; a 10、 sun rises in east and sets in west. A．A; an; a B．The;×;× C．The; the; the D．A; the; a 11、Many people agree that__knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. A．a;× B．the; an C．the; the D．×; the 12、 __Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He was in bad temper. A．×;a B．A;× C．The; the D．A; a 13、They were at dinner then. It was delicous one. A．a; the B．×;× C．×;a D．a; a 14、what kind of car do you want to buy? A．× B．the C．a D．an 15、Alice is fond of playing piano while Henry is interested in listening to music. A．×; the B．×;× C．the; × D．the; the 16、Beyond stars, the astronaut saw nothing but space. A．the; × B．×; the C．×;× D．the; the 17、Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone in 1876. A．× B．a C．the D．one 18、——Where’s Jack? ——I think he’s still in bed, but he might just be in bathroom. A．×;× B．the; the C．the; × D．×; the 19、Many people are still in habit of writing silly things in public places. A．the; the B．×;× C．the; × D．×; the 20、——I’d like information about the management of your hotel, please. ——Well, you could have word with the manager. He might be helpful. A．some; a B．an; some C．some; some D．an; a 【答案】 ： 1、B air 是不可数名词。 2、 此题为 97 年高考题。 D 根据句意， 第一空是泛指， 第一次出现； 第二空仍是泛指， 且表数量 “－” 。 3、D 元音前用 an。 4、B weather 是不可数名词。 5、A 此题为 85 年高考题。泛指。 6、A go to school 是固定短语。 7、B 山脉、形容词最高级及世界上的唯一的名词前加定冠词。 8、A 第一、二空泛指，第三空，science 是不可数名词。 9、C 第一空，科目前不加冠词；第二空特指，有定语。 10、C 11、A 第一空，a + 不可数名词表具体的介绍；第二空，trade 不可数。 12、D 第一空是指有一位琼斯先生在您不在的时候来访。 （括号里说明，我们俩都不认识这个人，因 此不是特指。 ）第二空是固定短语，情绪不好。 13、C 第一空 at dinner 正在吃饭，固定短语。 14、A 泛指 15、C 此题是 89 年高考题：乐器前加定冠词；music 是不可数名词。 16、A 此题是 90 年高考题：stars 前应加定冠词；space 不可数。
17、C 18、D 19、C 20、A
此题是 91 年高考题：发明应是特指。 此题是 92 年高考题。in bed 是固定短语，不加冠词。 此题是 93 年高考题。第一空后有定语，固是特指。第二空， public places,公共场所，泛指。 此题是 95 年高考题。information 是不可数名词；have a word with sb.是固定短语。 二、名词 Nouns
知识要点： 一、名词的种类： 1、专有名词： 1）China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack（不加冠词） 2）the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People’s Republic of China, the United States 等。 （由普通名词构 成的专有名词，要加定冠词。 ） 2、普通名词： 1）不可数名词 ?
? 物 质 名 词 ： w a te r ， r ic e ， o il ， p a p e r ? ? 抽 象 名 词 ： h e a lth ， tr o u b le ， w o r k ， p le a s u r e ， h o n o r ?
注意：?不可数名词前一般不加冠词，尤不加不定冠词：若加 a(an)则使之具体化了。 如：have a wonderful time. ?不可数名词作主语，谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 ?不可数名词一般无复数形式。部分物质名词在表不同类别时，可用复数形 式。 如：fishes, newspapers, waters, snows?? | | | | 各种各样的鱼 各种报纸 河湖、海水 积雪 ?有些抽象名词也常用复数，变为可数的具体的事物。如：times 时代，works 著作，difficulties 困难 ?在表数量时，常用“of”词组来表示。如： a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper?. 2）可数名词： ?可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外，一般都要加冠词：A birdcaufly. The frog is a kind of hibernating animal. Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh. ?有复数形式： a）规则变化——加“s”或“es” （与初中同，略） b）不规则变化——child (children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men), woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen), phenomenon(phenomena)? 注意：c）单、复数同形：sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, fish（同一种鱼）??。如， a sheep, two sheep d）只用复数形式： thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,? e）形复实单：physics, politics, maths, news, plastics（塑料） ，means. f）形单实复：people (人民，人们） ，the police, cattle 等 g）集合名词如：family, public, group, class 等。当作为整体时，为单数；当作 为整体中的各个成员时，为复数。如： My family is a big one. My family are music lovers. h）复合名词变复数时，a）只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式。如： sister(s)-in-law 嫂子，弟妹；step-son (s)继子；editor (s) -in-chief 总编辑。
b）如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加“s” 。如：grown-up(s)成年人，go-between(s) 中间人 c）woman, man 作定语时，要与被修饰的名词的数一致。如：a man servant—men servants, a woman doctor—women doctors 二、名词的所有格： 1、表有生命的东西（人或动物）的名词所有格，一般在名词后加“’s” 。如：Mike’s bag, Children’s Day, my brother’s room, women’s rights? 注意：1）名词复数的词尾是-s 或-es，它的所有格只在词后加“s” 。如：Teachers’ Day, the workers’ rest-home（工人疗养院） ，the students’ reading-room 2）复合名词的所有格，在后面的词后加“’s” 。如：her son-in-law’s photo（她女婿的照片） ； anybody else’s book（其他任何人的书） 3）如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有，则在最后的一个名词后面加“’s” ； 如果不是共有，则每个词后都要加“’s” 。如：Jane and Helen’s room. 珍妮和海伦的房间（共有）. Bill’s and Tom’s radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的 收音机（不共有） 4）表地点（店铺，某人的家等）的名词所有格后面，一般省去它所修饰的名词。如： the tailor’s (裁缝铺) the doctor’s (诊所) Mr Brown’s (布朗先生的家) 5）有些表时间、距离、国家、城镇的无生命的名词，也可加“’s”表所有格。 如：half an hour’s walk (半小时的路程) China’s agriculture (中国的农业) 2、表示无生命的东西的名词一般与 of 构成词组，表示所有格。如：the cover of the book 3、表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用 of，特别是名词较长，有较多的定语时。如： the story of Dr Norman Bethune Do you know the name of the boy standing at the gate? 4、 “of 词组+所有格”的用法： 在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、 数词、 不定代词或指示代词 （如： two, some, a few, this, that, these, those a, 等）时，常用“of 词组+所有格”的形式来表示所有关系。如： a friend of my father’s 我父亲的一位朋友。 some inventions of Edison’s 爱迪生的一些发明 those exercise-books of the students’ 学生们的那些练习本。 【专项训练】 ： 1、There are only twelve in the hospital. A．woman doctors B．women doctors C．women doctor D．woman doctor 2、Mr Smith has two , both of whom are teachers in a school. A．brothers-in-law B．brother-in-laws C．brothers-in-laws D．brothers-in law 3、——How many does a cow have? ——Four. A．stomaches B．stomach C．stomachs D．stomachies 4、Some visited our school last Wednesday. A．German B．Germen C．Germans D．Germens 5、The of the building are covered with lots of . A．roofs; leaves B．rooves; leafs C．roof; leaf D．roofs; leafs 6、When the farmer returned home he found three missing. A．sheeps B．sheepes C．sheep D．sheepies 7、That was a fifty engine.
A．horse power B．horses power C．horse powers D．horses powers 8、My father often gives me . A．many advice B．much advice C．a lot of advices D．a few advice 9、Mary broke a while she was washing up. A．tea cup B．a cup of tea C．tea’s cup D．cup tea 10、Can you give us some about the writer? A．informations B．information C．piece of informations D．pieces information 11、I had a cup of and two pieces of this morning. A．teas; bread B．teas; breads C．tea; breads D．tea; bread 12、As is known to us all, travels much faster than . A．lights; sounds B．light; sound C．sound; light D．sounds; lights 13、She told him of all her and . A．hope; fear B．hopes; fear C．hopes; fears D．hope; fears 14、The rising did a lot of to the crops. A．water; harm B．water; harms C．waters; harm D．waters; harms 15、——How far away is it from here to your school? ——It’s about . A．half an hour’s drive B．half hours drives C．half an hour drives D．half an hour drive 16、The shirt isn’t mine. It’s . A．Mrs Smith B．Mrs’ Smith C．Mrs Smiths’ D．Mrs Smith’s 17、Miss Johnson is a friend of . A．Mary’s mother B．Mary’s mothers’ C．Mary mother’s D．Mary’s mother’s 18、Last week I called at my . A．aunt B．aunts C．aunt’s D．auntes’ 19、The beach is a throw. A．stone B．stones C．stones’ D．stone’s 20、I can hardly imagine sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A．Peter’ B．Peter C．Peters D．Peters’ 【答案】 ： 1、B 2、A 3、C stomach（胃）虽是“ch”结尾，但其发音为[k]，所以加“s” ，不用加“es” 。 4、C 5、A roof, chief, gulf, belief 等词的复数形式，直接加“s” 。 6、C 7、A 名词作定语一般不用复数。 8、B 9、A 根据句意，打破的应是杯子，而不是茶；名词作定语表类别不用加“’s” 。 10、B 11、D 12、B 13、C 14、C 15、A 16、D 根据上句，此处应是史密斯太太的衬衫。
17、D 18、C 19、D a stone’s throw 是固定短语，意为“近在咫尺” 。 20、B 此句中 Peter 作动名词 sailing 的所有格，本应用 Peter’s，但因其在动词后作宾语，所以可用 宾格，因此 B 为正确答案。 三、主谓一致 Agreement 知识要点： 在英语的句子中，谓语动词的形式应与主语的人称和数保持一致。如何判定，则要看句子的意思。多 数情况下，根据句子的主语形式就能判定，但有的则要看整句的意思，及强调的内容。下面我们就常用的、 易混的几种情况作一下解释。 1、以单数名词或代词、不定式、动名词短语或从句作主语时，谓语动词要用单数形式。如： 1）The book is on the table. 2）He is reading English. 3）To work hard is necessary.（It is necessary to work hard.） 4）How you get there is a problem. 2、复数主语跟复数动词。如： Children like to play toys. 3、在倒装句中，动词的数应和它后面的主语的数一致。如以 here,there 开头，be 动词与后面第一个 名词一致。如： 1）There is a dog near the door. 2）There were no schools in this area before liberation. 3）Here comes the bus. 4）On the wall were two famous paintings. 5）Here is Mr Brown and his children. 4、 连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时， and 谓语动词用复数。 如果主语后跟有 with, together with, except, but, perhaps , like, including, as well as, no less than, more than, rather than 等引起的短语，谓语动词仍与短语 前的主语的形式保持一致。如： 1）Jane, Mary and I are good friends. 2）He and my father work in the same factory. 3）His sister, no less than you, is wrong. 4）The father, rather than the brothers, is responsible for the accident. 5）He, like you and Xiao Liu is very diligent. 6）Every picture except these two has been sold. 7）Alice with her parents often goes to the park on Sundays. 8）Alice as well as her friends was invited to the concert. 9）Nobody but Mary and I was in the classroom at that time. 5、并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时，谓语动词用单数，and 后面的名词没有冠 词。如： 1）The writer and worker is coming to our school tomorrow. 这位工人作家明天要来我们学校。 2）Bread and butter is their daily food. 面包和黄油是他们每日的食品。 3）The writer and the worker are coming to our school tomorrow. 那位作家和那位工人明天将来我们学校。 （两个人） 6、and 连接的并列单数名词前如有 each, every, no, many a 修饰时，谓语动词要用单数形式。如： 1）Every boy and girl has been invited to the party. 所有的孩子都被邀请参加这次聚会。 2）No teacher and no student is absent today.
今天没有老师和学生缺席。 3）Many a student is busy with their lessons. 许许多多的学生都忙着复习他们的功课。 7、each, either, one, another, the other, neither 作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Each takes a cup of tea. 2）Either is correct. 3）Neither of them likes this picture. 8、由 every, some, any, no 构成的合成代词作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Is everyone here? 2）Nothing is to be done. 没有什么要干的事儿了。 9、关系代词 who, that, which 等在定语从句中作主语时，其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 如： 1）Those who want to go please sign their names here. 2）Anyone who is against this opinion may speak out. 3）He is one of the students who were praised at the meeting. 10、表示时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的复数名词或短语作为一个整体看待时，其谓语动词常用单数 形式。如： 1）Three years is not a long time. 2）Ten dollars is what he needs. 3）Five hundred miles is a long distance. 11、复数形式的专有名词作为整体看待（如人名、地点、国家、组织、书籍、报刊等） ，动词用单数 形式。如： 1）The United States is in North America. 2）The United Nations has passed a resolution(决议)。 3） “The Arabian Nights”《天方夜谭》 an interesting book. （ ）is 12、有些集体名词如 family, team, group, class, audience（听众，观众） ，government 等作主语时，如看 作是一个整体，谓语动词则用单数形式；如强调各个成员时，谓语动词要用复数形式。如： 1）My family is going to have a long journey. 我家要进行一次长途旅行。 2）My family are fond of music. 我家人都喜欢音乐。 3）The class has won the honour. 这班获得了荣誉。 4）The class were jumping for joy. 全班同学都高兴得跳了起来。 13、all, more, most, some, any, none, half, the rest 等作主语时，既可表示复数意义，也可表示单数意义， 谓语动词要根据实际情况而定。如： 1）All of the apple is rotten. 整个苹果都烂了。 2）All of the apples are rotten. 所有的苹果都烂了。 3）Most of the wood was used to make furniture (家具)。 14、the + 形容词（或分词）作主语时，常指一类人，谓语动词用复数形式。如指的是抽象概念，谓 语动词则用单数形式。如： 1）The young are usually very active. 年轻人通常是很活跃的。 2）The wounded are being taken good care of here now. 现在伤病员们在这里受到了很好照顾。 15、or, either?or?, neither?nor?, whether?or, not only?but (also)连接的是主语，谓语动词与后一个
主语一致。如： 1）Either you or I am going to the movies. 2）Not only you but also he is wrong. 16、不可数名词没有复数形式，作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Water is a kind of matter. 2）The news at six o’clock is true. 17、集合名词如：people, police ,cattle 等作主语，谓语动词用复数形式。如： 1）The police are searching for him. 2）The cattle are grassing (吃草)。 18、population 当人口讲时，谓语动词用单数形式；当人们讲时，谓语动词用复数。如： 1）The population of China is larger than that of Japan. 2）One third of the population here are workers. 19、the number of + 名词复数，是表示“?的数字” ，作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式；a (large / great) number of + 名词复数，表示许多，作主语时；谓语动词用复数形式。 1）The number of the students in our school is increasing year after year. 2）A number of students have gone for an outing. 20、means, politics, physics, plastics 等作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。 【专项训练】 1、Nothing but cars in the shop. A．is sold B．are sold C．were sold D．are going to sell 2、No one except Jack and Tom the answer. A．know B．knows C．is knowing D．are known 3、Seventy percent of the students in our school from the countryside. A．is B．are C．comes D．are coming 4、 of the money used up. A．Three-five, are B．Three-fifths, have been C．Three-fifths, has been D．Third-fifths, is 5、The number of the people who cars increasing. A．owns, are B．owns, is C．own, is D．own, are 6、One of Marx’s works written in English in the 1860s. A．was B．were C．would be D．are 7、The sheets for your bed washing. A．needs B．are needing C．want D．are wanting 8、On each side of the street a lot of trees. A．stands B．grow C．is standingD．are grown 9、Some person calling for you at the gate. A．are B．is C．is being D．will be 10、All that can be eaten eaten up. A．are being B．has been C．had been D．have been 11、Tom’s teacher and friend Mr. Smith. A．are B．is C．are being D．has 12、Your new clothes fit you, but mine me. A．doesn’t fit B．don’t fit C．doesn’t fit for D．don’t fit for 13、Neither he nor I for the plan. A．am B．are C．is D．were 14、Many a student that mistake before.
A．has made B．have made C．has been made D．had made 15、Peter, perhaps John, playing with the little dog. A．is B．are C．were D．seems 16、Laying eggs the ant queen’s full-time job. A．is B．are C．has D．have 17、Between the two buildings a monument. A．stand B．stands C．standing D．is standing 18、I, who your good friend, will share your joys and sorrow. A．am B．is C．are D．was 19、The United Nations in 1945. A．were found B．were founded C．was founded D．was found 20、 were also invited to the party. A．Mr Smith B．The Smith C．The Smiths D．Smiths 21、The glass works in 1959. A．were set up B．was set up C．were put up D．were built 22、Three hours with your girl friend to be a short time. A．seem B．seems C．is seeming D．has seemed 23、It was reported that six including a boy. A．was killed B．were killed C．was killing D．had killed 24、The police a prisoner. A．is searching for B．are searching forC．is searching D．are searched for 25、Deer faster than dogs. A．run B．runs C．are running D．will run 26、The wounded good care of here now. A．is taken B．are being taken C．are taking D．is taking 27、The whole class greatly moved at his words. A．was B．were C．had D．is 28、Over 80 percent of the population of China peasants. A．was B．is C．are D．will be 29、There a knife and fork on the table. A．seems to be B．seem to be C．is seeming to be D．are 30、Those who singing may join us. A．are liking B．likes C．enjoy D．is fond of 31、His family music lovers. A．all are B．are all C．is D．are being 32、A professor and a writer present at the meeting. A．was B．is C．were D．had been 33、The pair of shoes worn out. A．was B．were C．have been D．had been 34、The students in our school each an English dictionary. A．have B．has C．had D．are having 35、More than one answer to the question. A．have been given B．has been given C．were given D．had given 36、The boy sitting by the window is the only one of the students who from the countryside in our school. A．are B．is C．were D．was 37、Our family a happy one.
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A．is B．are C．was D．were 38、Most of the mistakes because of carelessness. A．were made B．are made C．has been made D．were making 39、Most of his time in reading novels. A．are spent B．is spent C．were spentD．was spending 40、The rest of the novel very interesting. A．were B．are C．is D．seem 41、I know that all getting on well with her. A．was B．is C．are D．were 42、When and where this took place still unknown. A．are B．were C．is D．has 43、Not only the workers but also the machine not there. A．are B．were C．is D．has 44、Very few his address in the town. A．knows B．know C．are knowing D．has known 45、Ten thousand dollars a large sum of money. A．are B．is C．were D．seem 46、Twenty miles a long way to cover. A．were B．are C．is D．seem to be 47、Nine plus three twelve. A．makes B．make C．is making D．are making 48、There are two roads and either to the station. A．leads B．lead C．are leading D．is leading 49、My father, together with some of his old friends, there already. A．have been B．has been C．had been D．will be 50、My family as well as I glad to see you. A．am B．are C．is D．was 【答案】 ： 1、A 因有连词 but，所以谓语形式跟 Nothing 一致，用第三人称单数。见讲解 4。 2、B 同上 3、B 见讲解 2。 4、C 见讲解 16。 5、C 定语从句看被修饰的先行词：the number of 作主语用单数形式。见讲解 9，19。 6、A 见讲解 1。 7、C 见讲解 2。 8、B 倒装句，要看后面的主语。见讲解 3。 9、B some person 指“某人”是第三人称单数。见讲解 13。 10、B 主语“all”指的是“food” ，所以代不可数名词，是第三人称单数。见讲解 13。 11、B Tom’s teacher and friend，因 friend 前没有冠词，所以实际指的是同一个人。 见讲解 5。 12、B 根据前一分句的意思，第二分句中的 mine 指的是“my new clothes” ，因 此主语是复数。 13、A neither?nor?连接主语，动词与后面的主语保持一致。见讲解 15。 14、A 见讲解 6。 15、A 见讲解 4。 16、A 见讲解 1，动名词作主语。 17、B 倒装，见 讲解 3。 18、A 见讲解 9。 19、C 见讲解 11。 20、C 因谓语动词是复数，所主语应是复，The Smiths 是指史密斯一家人。 21、B works 在此句中是指工厂，所以是单数。 22、B 见讲解 10。 23、B six 在这儿指的是人，因此用复数形式。 24、B 见讲解 17。 25、A deer, sheep 是单、复数同形，根据后面的 dogs，前面的 deer 应是复数（单 数 前 应 有 a ） 。 26、B 见讲解 14。 27、B 见讲解 12，因人才能受感动，所以 the whole class 是指全班的成员。 28、C 见讲解 18。 29、A 见讲解 5。刀、叉是一副而论，所以看作单数。 30、C 见讲解 9。 31、B 见讲解 12。 32、C 见讲解 4，注意与第 11 题比较。
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33、A 因此句主语是 pair，所以用单数。 34、A 因此句主语是 the students，所以用复数。如果 each 作主语，谓语动词则用第 三 人 称 单 数 形 式。如：Each of the students / Each student has an English dictionary. 35、B 此句中的主语是 one answer，所以谓语动词应与它保持一致。 36、B 根据句意，这个男孩是学校中唯一来自农村的学生，自然后面的定语从句 的主语是单数，所 以谓语动词用单数形式，又因主从句时态保持一致，故 B 是唯一正确答案。 37、A 见讲解 12。 38、A 见讲解 2。39、B 见讲解 16。 40、C 这部小说的剩余部分，还没超出“一” ，用单数。 41、C 见讲解 13，不定代词 all 在此句中代“与她相处的人” ，所以是复数。 42、C 见讲解 1，when and where this took place 是一个从句。 43、C 见讲解 15。 44、B few 在此代人，是复数。 45、B 见讲解 10。 46、C 同上。 47、A 同上。 48、A 见讲解 7。 49、B 见讲解 4。 50、B 同上。 四、虚 拟 语 气 虚拟语气分三种情况来掌握： 1、虚拟条件句。 2、名词性虚拟语气。 3、虚拟语气的其他用语。 一、虚拟条件句： 条件状语从句是非真实情况，在这种情况下要用虚拟语气。 1、条件从句与现在事实不一致，其句型为： If 主语＋过去时，主语＋should（could, would, 或 might）＋动词原形，如： If I were you, I would study hard. If it rained, I would not be here now. 2、条件从句与过去事实不一致，句型为： If 主语＋had＋过去分词，主语＋should（could, would, 或 might）＋have＋过去分词，如： If the doctor had come last night, the boy would have saved. If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam last term. 3、条件从句与将来事实不一致，句型为：
If 主 语 ＋ s h o u ld ? ? ＋do，主语＋should（could?）＋ 原形 do w e re to ?
过去时（与现在事实条件句一样） 。 If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. If I were to go to the moon one day, I could see it with my own eyes. If you missed the film to night, you would feel sorry. 注意问题： 1、If 条件句中绝对不可出现“would” 。 2、根据句中的时间状语，有时可能出现“混合虚拟”的情况，即主句可能是现在的情况，条件句也 许是发生在过去的情况，但都是遵守上述句型。 3、在条件句中如果出现 were, had, should 可省去 if，将主语与这些词倒装，例如： Had the doctor come last night, the boy would have saved. Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes. Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. 二、名词性虚拟语气： 在表示命令、建议要求、惊叹时的名词性从句中需用虚拟语气，基本句型： 主语＋（should）＋动词原形，如：
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Mother insisted that John go to bed at 9 o’clock.（宾语从句） We suggested that the meeting should not be held. It was required that the crops should be harvested at once.（主语从句） The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.（同位语从句） That is their demand that their wages be increased.（表语从句） 注意：在这种句子中绝不出现“would” “must” “could”等。 三、虚拟语气在一些特殊词中的使用或含蓄条件句： 1、wish 后的宾语从句： 与现在愿望不一致 主语＋过去时； 与过去愿望不一致 主语＋had＋过去分词； 与未来愿望不一致 主语＋would（could）＋原形。 I wish I were you. I wish I had visited the white House when I was in the states. I wish I met you tomorrow at the party. 2、It’s time 句型：当 It’s time 后用 that 从句时应该为： 主语＋should＋原形 或 主语＋过去时，例如： It’s time that you went to school. 或 It’s time that you should go to school. 3、If only 引起的感叹句相当于“How I wish＋宾语从句” If only he could come! 他要能来就好了。 If only I had known the answer! 我要早知答案就好了。 4、would rather, as if（though）引导的句子也需使用虚拟，表示过去的情况用过去完成时，表示现在 与将来的情况用过去时，如： I’d rather you posted the letter right away. I’d rather you had returned the book yesterday. She loves the children as if they were hers. Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. 5、without, but, but for, otherwise 引起的短语或句子常暗含着含蓄条件。 Without you, I would never know him. But for your cooperation, we wouldn’t have done the work so well. But that she was afraid, she would have said no. I would be most glad to help you, but I’ am busy now. I would have come to the party yesterday, but I was working. I am busy now, otherwise I would do you the favor! 【专项训练】 1、It is important that a college student a foreign language. A．will master B．master C．masters D．would master 2、It is strange that she without saying a word. A．should have gone out B．went C．should go out D．goes out 3、If my lawyer here last Saturday, he me from going. A．had been, would have prevented B．had been, would prevent C．were, would prevent D．were, would have prevent 4、 ——“He is a brave man.”
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——“Yes, I wish I his courage.” A．have B．had C．will have D．may have 5、If it rain, the crops would be saved. A．should B．will C．is going to D．was to 6、He ordered that the medicine by a special plane. A．was sent B．would be sent C．should send D．be sent 7、If you the medicine, you better now. A．took, would feel B．had taken, felt C．had taken, would feel D．took, would have felt 8、She is my sister, but she often acts as if my mother. A．is B．was C．were D．had been 9、I went to bed early last night, but I wish I so. A．didn’t do B．hadn’t do C．haven’t done D．couldn’t do 10、I’d rather he tomorrow afternoon. A．will come B．comes C．coming D．came 答案： 1、B 2、A 3、A 4、B 5、A 6、D 7、C 8、C 9、B 10、D 五、倒装句 英语的基本句型是主语 + 谓语。 如果将主语与谓语调换, 称倒装句。 倒装句分全倒装句和半倒装句。 一、 全倒装: 主语与谓语交换位置不需任何助动词, 叫全倒装。全倒装有以下三种 情况: 1、当 here, there, out, in, up, down 等副词放在句首时, 句子需全倒装: There goes the bell! 铃响了！ There lived an old man. Here comes the bus. 注意: ①在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或 be 动词, 像 go, come, mush 等。 ②主语如果是代词时不需倒装如 Away he went. 他走远了。 2、方位状语在句首, 如: In front of the house stopped a police car. Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. Under the tree sat a boy. 3 、直接引语在句首, 这种情况可倒装也可不倒装 "What does it mean?" asked the boy 或 the boy asked. 二、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况: 1、 否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldom Never shall I forget you. At no time was the man aware of what was happening. Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 2、 几对并列连词如 not only?but also, hardly? when 等连接两个并列句, 连词 在句首, 前句半倒装, 后句不倒装: Not only was everything he had taker away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away.
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No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started. 注意: ①not only?but also 连接两个并列主语时不需倒装, 如: Not only you but also I like playing chess. ②neither?nor 在句首时, 前后两句都需倒装, Neither do I have a sister nor does my husband. 3、only 在句首强调状语, 主句半倒装: Only then did I realize that I was wrong. Only in this way can I learn from my fault. Only when the war was over in 1918, was he able to get back to work. 注意: only 强调主语不倒装: Only the teachers can use the room. 4、so?that 句型, so 在句首时, 主句倒装, that 从句不倒装: So easy is it that a clild can learn it. So hard did he work that he finally won the fame. I saw the film, so did he. 1、倒装句（Inversion） 英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语” 。如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前，这种语序称为“倒装” 。 一、倒装的类型 类型 例 句 说 明 完 全 Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends. 整个谓语移至主语 倒 装 学生们涌出去欢迎外国朋友。 之前。 部 分 Seldom does he go to school late. 倒 装 他上学很少迟到。 只把系动词，情态 动词，助动词或表 语放在主语之前。
二、倒装结构的基本用法 1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装 情 况 疑 问 句 中 例 句 说 明 Have you got a dictionary? 你有一本字典吗？ Where did he go last Monday? 上星期一他去什么地方了？ Are you listening to the radio? 你在听广播吗？ Who told you the news? 谁告诉你那个消息的？ Which boy broke this glass? 哪个男孩子把这个玻璃打破了？ 用完全或部分倒 装， 但以疑问词或 疑问词修饰的名 词作主语的疑问 句要用正常语序。
“there be”There are three wells in our village. 结构中 我们村里有三口水井。 There stands a big paper making factory by the river. 河边有座大型造纸厂。 在 以 here, Here is a letter for you.
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there, now, 这儿有你一封信。 then, in, There goes the bell. 铃响了。 away, up Now comes your turn to play. down 等副 现在轮到你玩了。 词 开 头 的 Away went the crowd one by one . 句子中 人们一个一个地离去。 Look, there he comes! 看，他来了。 Down she went 她下来了。
构。 但如果主语是代 词则用正常语序。
在 以 I can’t swim, nor (neither)can she . 表示??也不这 neither nor 我不会游泳，她也不会。 样， neither 和 nor 或 no more He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he 意思相同， 可以替 开 头 的 句 want to go there. 换使用，no more 子中 他没有去过农村，他也不想去那里。 表示动作的程度 He did not turn up. No more did his wife. 并不比前面提到 他没有来，他妻子也没有来。 的稍强。意为也 不?。 用在 as （尽 Proud as the nobles are ,he is afraid to see me . 管）引导的 尽管这些贵族很傲慢，他却害怕见我。 让 步 状 语 Young as he is, he knows a lot . 从句中 虽然他年轻，却知道很多东西。 从属连句 as 用于 特殊语序， 含义与 though, although 相同，但“as”这 种结构可表示非 常强烈的对照， 必 须用倒装 （表语提 前）
2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。 （使句子更加流畅，更加生动） 情 况 例 句 说 明
含 有否 定 Never before have we seen such a sight. 常 用 否 定 词 有 ： never,not,hardly, 意 义的 副 以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。 scarcely seldom, little, 词 或连 词 Little did I think that he could be back alive. 放 在句 首 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 not until, not only?but Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift. also, no sooner ?than, 时 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。 hardly (scarcely)?when Not only was everything that he had taken away 等。一般主句用部分倒 from him, but also his German citizenship. 装结构。 不仅他所有的一切被没收了， 而且连他的德国 公民权也被剥夺了。 副词 only Only then did he realize his mistakes . 放 在句 首 只有在那时，他才认识到自己的错误。 Only in this way can you learn maths well . 时 只有用这种方法，你才能学好数学。 Only Mother can understand me .
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only 起强调作用，其句 型为“only +状语+部分 倒装” 。 如置于句首的 only 修饰
只有母亲最理解我。 Only three of us failed in the exam. 我们中只有三个人考试不及格。
虚 拟语 气 Were they here, they would help us . 把 从 句 中 if 省 略 将 条 件从 句 他们要是在这儿，他们会帮助我们的。 were，had 或 should 放 Had I been informed earlier. I could have done 在主语的前面。 中 something. 我要是早得到通知，我就能干事了。 Should you fail, take more pain and try again. 万一你失败了，就要更加刻苦，重新再干。 直 接引 语 “He is a clever boy”said the teacher. 主句主语和谓语次序颠 的 全部 或 老师说： “他是个聪明的孩子。 ” 倒，用完全倒装。 一 部分 放 “Go, Dick, go!”cried Tom,“Go home and get 但如果主句主语为代词 在句首时 help” “走，狄克，走！ ”汤姆呼喊着， “快回 时 或 谓 语 部 分 比 主 语 家去求援” 长，一般不用倒装。 “What do you think of the film? ”he asked. 他问“你认为这部电影怎么样？” “I’m leaving for Hongkong next month”Mary told me yesterday. 玛利告诉我“我下月要去香港” 。 表 示祝 愿 May you succeed! 祝你成功。 的句子中 Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁！ 副词 so 在 He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I . 句首 他对流行歌曲感兴趣，我也如此。 They will learn chemistry next term, so will I . 他们下学期学化学，我也学。 I can drive a car, so can my younger brother. 我会开汽车，我弟弟也会开车。 —Tom won the first prize for the English competition. －So he did. 英语竞赛汤姆获得了一等奖。确实如此。 It was cold yesterday. So it was . 昨天天气冷。的确冷。 在 频 度 状 Often did we warn them not to do so. 语 often, 我们曾多次警告他们不要这样做。 always, Many a time has she helped me with my many a English. time 等开 她不止一次地帮助或学习英语。 头 的句 子 中 在 方式 状 Thus ended his life.这样结束了他的生命。 语 thus 开 So loudly did he speak that even people in the
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谓语动词或谓语的一部 分放在主语的前面。 表示前面所说的情况也 适合于另一个人或另一 事物的肯定句中。
如果后面的句子只是单 纯重复前句的意思，不 表示也适用于另一人或 事，则不用倒装结构。
头 的句 子 next room could hear him . 中 及程 度 他讲话的声音那样大， 连隔壁屋子里的人都听 状语 so 放 得见。 句首 介 词短 语 In the middle of the room stood a little girl. 作 状语 ， 在房间中央站着一个小女孩。 放在句首 In the distance was a horse. 马在远处。 在 强调 表 Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great 表语提前，不仅为了强 语 的句 子 achievements. 调，而且为了使句子结 中 阿尔伯特· 曼因斯坦就是这样一个人， 一个纯 构达到平衡协调，或使 朴而又取得巨大成就的人。 上下文紧密衔接。 Such is life. 生活就是这样。 Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. 附近有两只他们来这个岛乘坐的独木船。 【专项训练】 Ⅰ、选择填空 1、 that we all went out, lying in the sun. A．The weather so fine was B．So fine was the weather C．So the weather was fine D．So was fine weather 2、Under his arm a pair of shoes which he had bought from the shop a few days before. A．is B．are C．was D．were 3、 who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs. A．Before George stood the policeman B．Before George the policeman stood C．Before the policeman stood George D．Before George did the policeman 4、Then we had been looking forward to . A．came the hour B．the hour came C．comes the hour D．the hour is coming 5、Only when he started to explain the reason for this. A．she realized B．did she realize C．she had realized D．had she realized 6、 succeed in doing anything. A．Only by working hard we can B．By only working hard we can C．Only by working hard can we D．Only we can by working hard 7、Not for a moment the truth of your story. A．he has doubted B．he doubts C．did he doubt D．he did doubt 8、Nowhere else in the world cheaper tailoring than in Hong Kong. A．a tourist can find B．can a tourist find C．a tourist will find D．a tourist has found
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9、Hardly when the bus suddenly pulled away. A．they had got to the bus-stop B．they got to the bus-stop C．did they get to the bus-stop D．had they got to the bus -stop 10、Mary doesn’t speak French, and does Joan. A．not B．neither C．either D．so 11、—Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? —I don’t know, . A．nor don’t I care B．nor do I care C．I don’t care neither D．I don’t care also 12、Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is. A．man did know B．man knew C．didn’t man know D．did man know 13、After that we never saw her again nor from her. A．did we hear B．we heard C．had we heard D．we have heard 14、John won the first prize in the contest. . A．So he did. B．So did he. C．So he did, too. D．So did he, too. 15、 ,he doesn’t study well. A．As he is clever B．He is as clever C．Clever as he is D．As clever he is 16、You can never use my tape recorder. time should you touch that machine. A．At no B．At any C．Any D．No 17、Scarcely the room the phone rang. A．I had entered?when B．Had I entered?then C．had I entered?when D．have I entered?when 18、Only save his life. A．can the doctor B．the doctor can C．will the doctor D．could the doctor 19、Hardly anybody the boy , because he is rude. A．does like B．likes C．do like D．like 20、So well that the teacher praised her. A．she had done her homework B．her homework had been done C．did she do her homework D．she did her homework 21、Only when to know him will you get along with him. A．do you come B．will you come C．you come D．you will come 22、Out , gun in hand. A．did he rush B．rushed he C．he rushed D．had he rushed 23、He had promised me to come to the party ,and . A．so did he B．so he did C．so he would D．so would he 24、Into the sky the light blue smoke. A．went up B．up went C．did go up D．had gone up 25、Little about his own life at the meeting.
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A．did he talk B．he talked C．he was talking D．had he talked 26、Under no circumstances first use nuclear weapons. A．will China B．China will C．does China D．do China 27、 taken that examination, she could have passed it . A．Were she B．Had she be able to C．If she would have D．Had she 28、 tomorrow , we would put off the match till next Monday. A．Should it rained B．Were it to rain C．If it would rain D．Had it rained 29、Look, here . A．Mr. Brown comes B．does Mr. Brown come C．comes Mr. Brown D．Mr. Brown has come 30、Often us good advice. A．did she give B．she did give C．she gave D．she has given 31、Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A．didn’t I realize B．did I realize C．I didn’t realize D．I realize 32、Little about his own safety , though he was in great danger himself. A．does he care B．did he care C．he cares D．he cared 33、 began our new lesson. A．But B．Thus C．Such D．So that 34、By no means look down upon the poor. A．we should B．we should not C．do we D．should we 35、Only when 30 years old to learn English. A．was he , did he begin B．he was , he began C．was he , he began D．he was ,did he begin 36、Not once their plan. A．did they change B．they changed C．changed they D．they did changed 37、 “It’s very hot today.” “ .” A．So it is B．So is it C．So does it D．So it does 38、A fish needs water and without water it will die. A．So does a man B．So will a man C．So it is with a man D．So is it with a man 39、They arrived at the farmhouse, in front of which . A．sat a small boy B．a small boy sat C．is sitting a small boy D．a small boy sitting 40、Society has changed and in it . A．so have the people B．so the people have C．the people have so D．have the people so Ⅱ、改错 41、Only when was he 50 years old did he begin to learn French.
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42、Little she knew Tom was was badly ill 43、Turn to the right and there are you. 44、And all around the fox in a circle was dogs. 45、—You can learn English well. —So can we. 46、I dare climb this tall tree, but do you? 47、Not once he kept his promise. 48、Many a time he has given us some good advice. 49、Such a noise there was that I couldn’t work in the room. 50、Only does my mother understand me. 【答案】 ： Ⅰ、 1、B 2、C 3、A 4、A 5、B 6、C 7、C 9、D 10、B 11、B 12、D 13、A 14、A 15、C 16、A 17、C 18、B 19、B 20、C 21、C 22、C 23、B 24、A 25、A 26、A 27、D 28、B 29、C 30、A 31、B 32、B 33、B 34、D 35、D 36、A 37、A 38、C 39、A 40、A Ⅱ、 41、was he —he was 倒装主句不倒装从句。 42、She knew—did she know 此句为半倒装句。 43、are you —you are 此句为全部倒装句如主语是代词则不倒装。 44、was—were 主语是 dogs 。 45、so we can 主语 we 与上一句中的主语 you 所指相同故不同倒装。 46、do you—dare you 前面句中用情态，后面要呼应。 47、he kept—did he keep 48、he has—has he 49、? 50、去掉 does，将 understand 改为 understands。only 后面跟状语倒装，后跟主语不倒装。 六、并列句 知识要点： 1、熟悉并掌握并列句的结构和常用的并列词的用法； 2、注意 while, when 和 for 等作并列连词的用法。 什么叫并列句： 由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子叫并列句。 并列句的基本句型： 简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句 类型 说明 连接词 例 句 并列关系 and, not only? I help him and he helps me. 我帮助他，他也帮助我。 Not only did we write to her but also we telegraphed her. (联合关系) but(also), neither?nor 等 我们不仅给她写信而且还给她发了电报。 Neither I would consult him nor he would ask me for 并 advice. 我不想与他商量，他也不会征求我的意见。 转折关系 but, yet, still, He failed many times, but he didn’t despair. 他失败多次但 while, however, 并没有气馁。
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when 等 列
She has difficulty in learning English, however, she works hard and is making rapid progress. 她学习英语有困难， 然后 她学习努力，进步很快。
选择关系 or, otherwise or We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点，否 else, either?or 则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我 这儿来，或者我到你那去。 句 因果关系 for, so, thus, We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆 therefore, and 在家里，因为天正在下雨。 so He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力，因此这次考试不及格。 有 时 也 可 不 用 Hurry up, it’s getting dark. 快点，天要黑了。 连 词 ， 而 用 逗 Let’s start early, we have a long way to go. 我们要早动 号， 分号或冒号 身，因为路很远。 注意： （1）yet 和 still 是连接副词，也叫半连接词。它们是副词。又起连接作用，但不如 and, but, or 等强， 用了 yet 或 still，前面还可加 and 或 but。 He is tired, (but) still he will make another experiment. 他很累，但他仍然要做另一个实验。 I got up very early, (and) yet I failed to catch the first bus. 我起得很早，然而还是没有赶上头班车。 （2）while 意义相当于 at the same time 表示相反和对照，常用来连接两个意义对立的分句。 I like football, while my sister likes basketball. 我喜欢足球，而我姐姐喜欢篮球。 when = and then, just then 或 at that time, during the time. We were ready to rush away, when the snake moved. 我们正准备离开，这时蛇移动了。 while 和 when 作为并列连词使用时常是放在第二个分句前边，并有逗号和第一分句隔开。 3、for 表示附加或推断的理由、原因。therefore 比 so 更正式，and so 比较口语化。 【专项训练】 ： 一、用适当的并列连词填空： 1、He couldn’t know the truth about me, he wouldn’t treat me like this. 2、The bell is ringing the lesson is over. 3、Although he was ill, he kept on working. 4、I can’t make up my mind we will go to Shanghai we will stay in our city. 5、He doesn’t talk much, he thinks a lot. 6、It must have rained last night the ground is still wet. 7、The president will visit the town in May he will open the new hospital. 8、Jane was dressed in green Mary was dressed in blue. 9、 he did not speak distinctly I did not hear it clearly. 10、He is clever, , he often makes mistakes. 11、 did we write to her we called up her. 12、He hasn’t any money I’m going to lend him some. 13、The child was sick; he, , didn’t go to school. 14、Mary was neither happy, was she sad. 15、Put on more clothes, you’ll catch cold. 二、选择最佳答案： 16、Some are reading magazines, others are playing cards. A．or B．for C．so D．while 17、We must get up early tomorrow. we’ll miss the first bus to the Great Wall.
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A．so B．or C．but D．however 18、——I don’t like chicken fish. ——I don’t like chicken, I like fish very much. A．and, and B．and, but C．or, and D．or, but 19、We want high speed good quality. A．both, and B．either, or C．neither, nor D．not, but also 20、In spring it is hot cold here. A．both, and B．either, or C．neither, nor D．not only, but 21、 does he writes well, he also speaks well. A．Not only, but B．Not, but C．Either, or D．Both, and 22、Use your head, you’ll work it out. A．so B．or C．and D．for 23、I want to buy the jacket, I have not enough money with me. A．but B．so C．or D．for 24、 you I am going to help Tom. A．Either, or B．Not, but C．Not only, and D．Each, and 25、The soldier was wounded, he pushed on. A．for B．and C．so D．yet 26、——Do you know Jim quarrelled with his classmate? ——I don’t know, . A．nor don’t I came B．nor do I care C．I don’t care neither D．I don’t care also 27、He is a teacher, a singer as well. A．but B．or C．nor D．and 28、 should a man have courage, he should have wisdom and knowledge. A．Not only, but B．Neither, nor C．Either, or D．Both, and 29、We have studied English for only one year, we can perform English short plays already. A．yet B．for C．and D．or 30、She had escaped, the ring had fallen off and been damaged in the great heat of the fire. A．so B．or C．but D．and 31、The work was difficult, ,he finished in on time. A．but B．however C．otherwise D．therefore 32、The sky was cloudless the sun was shining. A．but B．and C．for D．so 33、 many times, but he still couldn’t understand it. A．Having been told B．Though he had been told C．He was told D．Having told 34、I was walking along the street I heard someone calling my name. A．when B．while C．and D．for 35、To be healthy, you must have a meal too big too small. A．either, or B．neither, nor C．not only, but also D．not, but 36、Both Jane and Ellen, Mary, are studying at the same college. A．too B．and C．as well D．as well as 37、He has never studied English before, we should give him more help.
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A．and B．or C．therefore D．but 38、I see your point of view; , I don’t agree with you. A．or B．but C．so D．still 39、They must stay in the water they will die. A．but B．so C．otherwise D．and 40、We played outside till sunset it began to rain. A．when B．while C．yet D．so 三、改错： 41、Although he has great learning, but he always works far into the night. 42、Because the boy is very naughty, so I’m angry with him. 43、Not only he himself works hard but he often helps others. 44、It must have rained much of late, because the river is so high. 45、They didn’t tell me whether I should write to him nor whether I should see him personally. 46、If there were no plants, we would have no animals or no meat. 47、Now of course I don’t want to say anything bad about anyone however have you noticed his strange manners? 48、 “I’m more thankful to you, sir, than I can say” I said, “ and but I must make things clear.” 49、He neither knows nor cares for what happened. 50、He did not like your suggestion, and but he raised no objection(反对). 【答案】 ： 一、 1、or 2、and 3、still / yet 4、when, or 5、but 6、for 7、when 8、while 9、Either, or 10、however 11、Not only, but 12、so 13、therefore 14、nor 15、or 二、 16、D 17、B 18、D 19、A 20、C 21、A 22、C 23、A 24、A 25、D 26、B 27、D 28、A 29、A 30、C 31、B 32、B 33、C 34、A 35、B 36、D 37、C 38、D 39、C 40、A 四、 41、去掉 but 或改为 yet 42、去掉 so 43、he 前加 does；works－work 44、because－for 45、nor－or 46、or—and 47、however—but 48、去掉 and 49、去 for 50、去掉 and 或把 but 改为 yet 或 still 七、定语从句 一、定语从句 1．定语从句三步：第一找出先行词；第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ；第 三选择合适的关联词。 2．定语从句在选择关连词 that 与 which 时，常常容易出错，所以应记住什么时候只能用 that，什么时候 只能用 which. （1） ．只能用 that 的情况归纳 4 种：即先得词被序数词最高级修饰过；先行词为 all 、everything、nothing
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等不定代词；先行词同时是人和物并列时；最后先行词分别被 the only 、the very the same、the last 修饰。 请看下列四组例句，注意其先行词： ①．The first thing that we should do is to work out a plan . ②．I t almost seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all that he knew at this lesson . ③．Later my father and Mr.Crosset talked for about half an four of things and persons that they remembered in school. ④．This is the very dictionary that I want to find . （2） ．只用 which is 情况有两种情况：一是非限制性定语从句，关连词要用 which；二是做介词宾语时只 能用 which。请看下列两组例句： I said nothing , which made him more angry . I have the book about which you are talking . 三、在定语从句的非限制性定语中，which 和 as 是容易混淆的。在很多情况下两者兼可互换，但在下列 情况中不可互换： 1、通常 As 可以放在整句的句首，而 which，只能在逗号之后，as 本身含有“正如” ，as 在定语从句 中既可是主语也可做宾语 As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature. She is remarkable, as I have told you . 2、 which 在做非限制性定语从句关联词时可以无明确先行词， 指前句整个的意思， she has warried 如： again,which surprises us . 四、在定语从句中，许多人往往分不清 all that 和 what,what 实际上只引导名词性从句，它相当于 all that 两个字，例如： All that I know is that he has made up his mind to heave the country for a new place. = what I know is that ?? 一、限定性定语从句： 种类 定 先行词 （人）在 从句中 做主语 或宾语 关联词 who 例句 说明 This is the doctor who saved the who 在从句中做主语 boy’s life . whom 在从句中做宾语， 这就是救了孩子生命的医生。 口 语中 who 可 以代 替 She is the new student whom I want whom，也可以被省去， to introduce to you . 但做介词宾语时只能用 whom 她就是我要介绍给你的新学生 Please pass me the book which is lying on the table. 请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。 which 在从句中做主语。 The novel which Tom bought is which 充当宾语时可以 very interesting. 省去。 汤姆买的小说很有意思。 Can you lend me the magazine about which you talked yesterday? which 做介词宾语不可 你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给 省 我吗？
语 which 从 物 在从句 中做主 语或宾 语
种类 先行词 关联词
whose The professor whose daughter teaches you whose 在从句中做定 English is Dr. Williams 语
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定 语 从 句
人 或 物 的
那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。 指某人的也可以用? The professor, the daughter of whom teaches of whom 代替 whose you English is Dr. Williams. The bike whose brake was damaged has now 指物时也可以用?of been repaired. which 代替 whose 那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了。 =The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired that The woman that is playing the piano is Miss that 指人做主语 Zhang. 正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐。 I’d like to see the films that are just on show. that 指物做主语 我想看那些刚上映的电影。 例 句 说 明
种类 先行词 关联词
物 that all, little much 和 some,an y every ,no 构成的 合成代 that 词
人 或 物 that 定 语 从 句 物 或 人
They talked for about an hour of things and 先 行 词 分 别 表 示人 persons that they remember in the school. 和物， 关系代词要用 他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事， that， 不 用 who 或 which 谈了大约有半个小时。 I’ll tell you all(that )I know about it . 先行词表示物， 关系 我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况。 代 词 用 that 不 用 Is there anything (that) I can do for you? which, 在 从 句 中 做 有什么我可以帮助做的事吗？ 宾语可省去 。如果 I’ve brought everything (that )you need. 先行词是人时， 关系 我把你需要的东西都拿来了。 代 词 不 受 制 约 ，用 that 或 who (whom) 均可 This is the best film that I have seen . 这是我看过的最好的一部电影。 The first place that we’ll visit is Beijing Library. 先 行 词 被 形 容 词最 我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆 高 级 或 序 数 词 修饰 时 定 语 从 句 用 that 引导。
He is the only person that is believable. 先 行 词 被 the only, 他是唯一可靠的人。 the very,the same 等 John is the very person that she wants to see. 修 饰 时 用 关 系 代词 that. 约翰正是她要见的人。 Who is the man that is talking with Tom ? 正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁？ Which of the books that you bought is easy to 当 主 句 以 who 、 read? which 开头的特殊疑 你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。 问句时， 定语从句要 用 that
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when 时 间
He came at a time when we. needed him most. 在 定 语 从 句 中 作时 他在我们最需要的时候来了。 间状语 We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的那 一天。
注：先行词是 time, minute, moment, next tim 很少用关系副词 when,可用 that 但通常省去。 地点 原因 理由 where This is the room where he put up for the 在定语从句中作地点状语 night. 这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子。 why I know the reason why she studies so well . 在定语从句中作原因状语 我知道她学习好的原因。
（2）非限制性定语从句 种类 先行词 关联词 例 句 说 明 who George ,who is my classmate, has who, whom 不能省去，也不能用 人 whom won a scholarship. that 代替 乔治获得了奖学金，他是我的同 学。 Dr. Li , whom I know very well, will come here tomorrow. 李大夫明天将来这儿，我跟他很 熟悉。 which I gave him a New Year card ,which which 指物，不可省去，也不能 he enjoyed very much. 物 用 that 代替 我给他一张贺年卡， 他很喜欢它。 He studies hard at school when he 没有固 which was young, which leads to his which 作主语指它前面的整个句 success in his later life . 定的先 子，不可用 that 代替，强调结果。 行词而 他年轻时在校学习努力，这导致 是一个 了他后来生活中的成功。 句子 He gets up early ，as is always his as habit. as 指全句，在从句中做主语。 他总是早起床，这是他的习惯。 John was admitted into the college, as we had expected. as 指全句意思， 在从句中做宾语。 约翰被大学录取了，这是我们期 待的。 The earth ,as is known to all ,is as 引导的定语从句可以放在句 round. 首，句中或句末。 人人皆知，地球是圆的。
非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句
This is the same book as I lost 用 于 the same ? as, such ? yesterday. as ,as?as 等结构中。
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这本书与我昨天丢失的那本书一 样。 （3）限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 从句与先行词的关系 非限制性定语从句 从句是先行词不可缺少的定 从句只是对先行词的附加说 语，如果省去，主句的意思就 明， 如果省去,主句的意思仍然 会不完整或不明确。 清楚或完整 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常用逗号分 开 指人 who (that) whom 指人 who（作主语）whom（做 指物 which (that) 宾语） 人和物 whose 指物 which 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可 人和物的 whose 以省去 关系代词一般不可省
关 系 代 词 修饰 翻译
定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 定语从句通常被译成另一个独 立的句子
【专项训练】 1．Football is a very interesting game , is played all over the world． A．that B．which C．it D．who 2．Is there anything else you require? A．which B．that C．who D．what 3．The last place we visited was the Great Wall． A．which B．that C．where D．it 4．He talked happily about the men and books interested him greatly in the school． A．which B．who C．it D．that 5．The reailway tunnel,though the train goes, will be completed soon． A．which B．that C．it D．whom 6．His uncle works in a factory bicycles are made． A．that B．which C．where D．there 7．There is no dictionary you can find everything． A．that B．which C．where D．in that 8．Next month, you’ll spend in your hometown is coming． A．which B．that
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C．when D．where 9．Next month, you’ll be in your hometown is coming． A．which B．that C．when D．where 10．I often thought of my childhood , I lived on a farm． A．which B．where C．when D．who 11．He wanted to know the time he needed to know ． A．that B．when C．where D．what 12．There isn’t so much noise in the country in big cities． A．that B．which C．where D．as 13．They could only read such stories had been rewritten in simple English ． A．that B．which C．as D．what 14．The stems of bamboo are hollow makes them very light． A．which B．as C．that D．it 15．Crusoe’s dog hecame ill and died , made him very lonely ． A．as B．which C．that D．this 16．They’ve invited me to their party , is kind of them． A．as B．which C．That D．this 17． we know now ,bats come out only at night ． A．As B．Which C ．That D．What 18．John got beaten in the game , had been expected ． A．as B．that C．what D．who 19． has been said above ,grammar is a set of dead rules． A．Which B．What C．That D．As 20．Do you know the reason he was late? A．that B．which C．for what D．for which 21．He built a telescope he could study the skies． A．in which B．with that C．through which D．by it 22．I have bought two ballpens , writes well ． A．none of which B．neither of which C．none of them D．neither of them 23．There are two thousand students in our school , are girls ． A．of whom two thirds B．two -thirds of them C．two -third in them D．two -thirds in which
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24．Do you know the man ? A．whom I spoke B．to who I spoke C．I spoke to D．that I spoke 25．The factory we’ll visit next week isn’t far from here ． A．where B．in which C．which D．to which 26．This is one of the best films this year． A．have been shown B．that have shown C．that have been shown D．which has been shown 27．Can you lend me the book the other day ? A．you talked about B．about that you talked C．that you talked D．which you talked 28．Is there any one in you class family is in the city ． A．who B．who’s C．which D．whose 29．I’ll never forget the days we stayed together． A．when B．in which C．which D．what 30．Is some German friends visited last week ? A．this school B．this the school C．this school one D．this school where 31．I’ll tell you he told me last month ． A．all which B．all what C．that all D．all 32．Do you know the reason she got so angry yesterday? A．for why B．for that C．which D．why 33．I still remember the day she first wore that pink dress． A．which B．in which?? C．on that D．on which 34．I’ll show you a store you may buy all you need ． A．in which , / B．where , which C．which , that D．that , that 35．Winter is the time of year the days are short and nights are long． A．where B．when C．that D．on which 36．The train she was travelling was late． A．which B．on which C．for which D．on that 37．The second World War millions of people were killed ended in 1945． A．during which B．in that C．where D．on which 38．Is oxygen the only gas helps fire burn ? A．that B．/ C．which D．it 39．This is the best hotel in the city I know ．
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A．which B．that C．where D．it 40．I’ve read all the books were borrowed from the library ． A．that B．/ C．which D．they 41．The scientist and his achievements you told me about are admired by us all． A．which B．who C．that D．whose 42．She hasn’t got enough money to buy the rings ． A．which B．that C．with which D．for which 43．Finally came the day he bad to beging his study for the next term． A．which B．since C．that D．till 44．We hope to get such a tool he is using ． A．which B．as C．that D．where 45．Is there anything to you ． A．that is belonged B．that belongs C．which belongs D．that belong 46．You can take any seat is free ． A．which B．where C．that D．in which 47．The old woman has two sons ,one is a teacher． A．of them B．of which C．of whom D．of who 48．My hometown is no longer the same it used to be ． A．which B．as C．that D．like 49．You may take anything useful ． A．you want B．what you want C．you want them D．which you want 50．He tore up my photo and upset me ． A．that B．it C．which D．what 51．During the days , he worked as a servant at the Browns． A．followed B．following C．to follow D．that followed 52．The beautiful dress Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers ． A．that B．wearing which C．worn by D．in which 53．The clever boy made a hole in the wall , he could see what was going on inside the house． A．in which B．through which C．at which D．on which 54．The brave man , the tiger was shor is a good bunter． A．by which B．by whom
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C．by that 55．The knife A．with which C．with that 【答案】 ： 1B 2B 3B 11 A 12 D 13 C 21 C 22 B 23 A 31 D 32 D 33 D 41 C 42 C 43 C 51 D 52 D 53 B
D．of whom we used to cut the bread is very sharp ． B．with it D．which 4D 14 A 24 C 34 A 44 B 54 B 5A 15 B 25 C 35 B 45 B 55 A 6C 16 B 26 C 36 B 46 C 7C 17 A 27 A 37 A 47C 8A 18 A 28 D 38 A 48 B 9C 19 D 29 A 39 B 49 A 10 C 20 D 30 B 40 A 50A
八、名词性从句 知识要点： 1、熟悉并掌握各个连接词、关系代词和连接副词的用法。 2、熟悉并掌握复合句即名词性从句（主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句） ，定语从句和状 语从句。 什么叫复合句 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句。在复合句中主句是全句的主体，从句是全 句的一个成分，不能独立。 从句通常是用关联词来引导的。在这里关联词还起联系从句和主句的作用。 主从复合句（Complex Sentences） 一、从句的种类： 主语从句（Subject Clauses） 1、名词性从句 表语从句（Predicative Clauses） Noun Clauses 宾语从句（Object Clauses） 同位语从句（Appositive Clauses） 2、定语从句 （Attributive Clauses） 3、状语从句 （Adverbial Clauses） 注：以 it 作形式主语，把主语从句后置的常用的句型有： （1）It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 （2）It + be + 名词词组 + that 从句 （3）It + be + 过去分词 + that 从句 （4）It seem, happen 等不及物动词 + that 从句 二、常用的关联词 1、从属连词 that（无词义） ；whether 是否；if 假如，是否 although(though)虽然；because 因为 when 当?时候；before 在?前；after 在?后 since 既然，自从；as 正如，尽管，一边，由于；while 在?期间 as soon as 一?就；as long as 只要；as if 好像 2、连接代词 3、连接副词 4、关系代词 5、关系副词 1、主语从句： 种类 关联词 例 句
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who, whom, which, what, whose when, where, why, how who, whom, whose, which, that when, where, why 说 明
That he will come and help you is certain. 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。
Whether there is life on the moon is an 主 语 从 句 中 只 能 用 interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个 whether 不可用 if。 有趣的问题。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟 我们说什么，还不清楚。 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁 主语从句放在句首，句 能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 子常显得笨重，因此一般 It is known to us how he became a writer. 把它移到句子后面，前面 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 用引导词“it”来作形式 Where the English evening will be held has 主语。 not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里 举行，还没有宣布。 例 句 说 明
主 连 接 语 代 词 从 连 接 句 副 词
who what which whatever when where why how
2、宾语从句： 种类 陈述 意义 关联词 that I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他 that 在句中不担任任何 是忠诚的。 成分，在口语或非正式的 We must never think(that) we are good in 文体中常被省去，但如从 everything while others are good in 句是并列句时,第二个分 nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么 都 句前的 that 不可省。 好，别人什么都不好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连 我想知道他来还是不来。 用，不能用 if 代替。 Everything depends on whether we 作 介 词 宾 语 要 用 have enough money. 一切要看我们是否 whether 不能用 if。 有足够的钱。 I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day. 他 从句是否定句时一般用 if 不在乎天气是否好。 引导。 Please tell me what you want. 请告诉 宾 语 从句 作 及 物动 词 我你需要什么？ 宾语也可做介词的宾语。 She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做 好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人， 她都会 给予热情的支持。 We must make it clear that anyone who 如 果 宾语 从 句 后面 有 breaks the law will be punished. 我们必 宾语补足语， 则用 it 作形 须认清无论谁违反了法律都要受到惩 式宾语，将从句后置。 罚。 We don’t think you are here. 我们认为 think, believe, imagine, 你不在这。 suppose 等动词引出的宾
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特殊 who, whom, 疑问 which,whose, 意义 what, when, where, why, how,whoever, whatever, whichever 注1
I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他 语从句，要将从句中的否 不会这样做。 定形式，移动主句中。 3、表语从句： 种类 表 语 从 句 连 词 连 接 代 词 连 接 副 词 关联词 例 句 说 明 that The problem is(that) they can’t get here early enough. 在非正式的文 whether 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 体中 that 可以省 as if It looks as if it’s going to rain. 看起来天要下雨。 去。 who what which when where why how That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 表语从句位于 The question is who(which of you) will be the next 主句系动词之后 speaker. 问题是谁（你们哪一位）接着发言。 This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题 所在。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是 他为什么不到会的原因。 例 句 说 明
4、同位语从句： 种类 同 位 语 从 句 关联词 由 连 词 The news that he had landed on the moon spread 同位语从句 说明其 that 引导， all over the world. 他曾在月球上登陆这个消息传 前面的名词的具体内 不 担 任 成 遍世界。 容，常用的名词如： 分，也可有 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我 fact, news, idea, hope, when, how, 不知道他什么时候回来。 thought,question, order, doubt, word, where 等引 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fear, 导。 fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 proof，belief, story 等。 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问 题。
名词性从句包括四种从句即主语从句、表词从句、宾语从句和同位词从句。名词性从句的特点：that 、 who、 whom、 what 、whether 及 when、 where 引导名词性从句时必须是陈述句词序： 1、主词从句： That light travels in straight line is known to all . (That 引导主语从句不可省） When the plan is to take off hasn’t been announced ． 主语从句通常以 it 做形主语出现 It was my fault that I had him play foatball all faternoon. It is important that we should go to the school to talk with the teacher. 2、表语从句，即名词性从句放在表语位置就是表语从句，需要注意的，主语 是 reason 时，表语要用 that 引导而不是 because． The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning . 3、宾语从句 that 常可以省略，并且注意时态呼应，当主句为过去时时，从句 时态一定往前推移，不可出现现在时或现在完成时。 The teacher told us that Tomo had left us for America． 4、同位语从句注意与定语从句区别，同位语从句对前一名词做补充说明，在 从句中无语法位置，而定语从句所修饰词在从句中占一语法位置如：
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The idea that one can do the work without thinking is wrong．( 同位 idea 在从句中 无位置，而从句只是具体说明 idea 的内容） 。 The idea that you put forward at the meeting is wrong ．(定语从句，idea 做 put forward 的宾语)。 【专项训练】 1．I wonder how much ． A．cost these shoes B．do these shoes cost C．these shoes cost D．are these shoes cost 2．Nobody knew ． A．where he comes B．where he was from C．where he is from D．where does he come from 3．Excuse me ,would you please tell me ． A．when the sports meet will be taken place ． B．when was the sports meet going to be held． C．when is the sports meet to begin ． D．when the sports meet is to take place ． 4．Cornputers can only give cut has been stored in them . A．that B．which C．what D．anything 5．She wanted to know ． A．whether I knew her and where did she work B．if I knew her and the factory she worked there C．wherther I knew her and the factory she worked D．if I knew her and the factory where she worked 6．My friend wouldn’t tell me his new car ． A．how much he paid for B．how much did he pay C．he paid how much for D．did he pay how much 7．A simple experiment shows air has some strength ． A．what B．that C．which D．who 8．He you are not going abroad． A．surprised that B．is surprised that C．surprised at D．is surprised whether 9．Father asked ． A．what was wrong with me B．what’s wrong with me C．what wrong was with me D．what wrong is with me 10．It doesn’t matter I rest or not ． A．if B．whether C．that D．when 11．The trouble is we are short of tools ． A．what B．that C．how D．why that 12．That is there appears a rainbow in the sky ． A．what B．when C．why D．however 13． I can’t understand is he wants to change his mind． A．That , that B．Which , what
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C．What , what D．What, why 14．It is possible he misunderstood I said． A．that ,that B．what, what C．what , that D．that , what 15．The thought he might fail in the exam worried him ． A．which B．that C．when D．/ 16．The fact he is an orphan is well known． A．what B．that C．which D．/ 17． I was free that evening A．It happened to B．It happened that C．That happened D．It was happened that 18． I will accept the gift is none of your business． A．If B．Whether C．What D．Which 19． I have will be yours sooner or later ． A．No matter what B．No matter whatever C．Whatever D．That 20．He always thinks he can do more for the people． A．of how B．how C．of that D．why 21． in the newspaper that the Japanese Minister will arrive next Monday ． A．It says B．It is said C．It has said D．He is said 22．We think it important college students should master at least one foreign language ． A．which B．that C．what D．whether 23．Comrade Wang is to give us a talk on he saw and heard in Britain． A．what B．all what C．that D．which 24．The town is no longer it was ten years ago． A．which B．that C．what D．when 25． told yuou that was lying ． A．who B．whoever C．Anyone D．The person 26．Word came I was wanted at the office． A．which B．why C．that D．whether 27． nothing to do with us ． A．What he did is B．What he has done C．What did he do D．What he has done has 28．The problem is will go ． A．that B．that who C．who D．whoever
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29． there is life on another planet is almost impossible． A．How B．That C．Why D．Whether 30． was a well -known fact． A．That their team was weak B．That their team being weak C．Their team was weak D．If their team was weak 【答案】 ： 1C 2B 3D 4C 5D 6A 7B 8B 9A 10 B 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 D 15 B 16 B 17 B 18 B 19C 20 A 21 B 22 B 23 A 24 C 25 B 26C 27 D 28 C 29 B 30 A 九、状语从句 Adverbial Clauses 知识要点： 状语从句是副词性从句，它在句子中担任状语，修饰主句的动词、形容词或副词。根据修饰的方面， 状语从句可以分为以下九种。 1、时间状语从句 2、地点状语从句 3、原因状语从句 4、目的状语从句 5、结果状语从句 6、条件状语从句 7、方式状语从句 8、 让步状语从句 9、 比较状语从句 1、时间状语从句 种类 从属连词 when 例 句 说 明 When I came into the room, he was writing when 指的是 “某一具体 a letter. 的时间” 。 当我进屋时，他正在写信。 whenever We shall go there whenever we are free. whenever 指的是“在任 我们什么时间有空，我们就去那里。 何一个不具体的时间” 。 when 间 I was walking along the street when when 意为 “这时” “在 或 suddenly someone patted me on the shoulder 那个时候” ,可以看作是 from behind. 并列句,这种用法的 我正在街上走着，这时忽然有人从后面拍 when 分句一般位于句 我的肩膀。 末。 While it was raining, they went out. 天下雨的时候，他们出去了。 I stayed while he was away. 他不在的时候我在。 while 指 “在某一段时间 里” ， “在?期间” while ， 引导的动作必须是持续 性的。
状 while 语 as 从 before 句 after
He hurried home, looking behind as he as 引导持续性动作，强 went. 调主句和从句的动作同 他赶快回家，不时地一边走一边向后看。 时发生。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher. 先做学生，再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.
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比赛开始后，他到了。 till We waited till (until)he came back . 我们一直等到他回来。 例 句 如主句动词是持续性动 作，常用肯定式，表示 “直到?为止” 说 明
种类 从属连句 until
时 since 间 状 as soon as
She didn’t stop working until eleven o’clock . 如主句动词是瞬间动 她到 11 点钟才停止工作。 词，常用否定式，表 Until he had passed out of sight, she stood 示“直?才” “在?以 there. 前不”,从句放在句首 她站在那里看着，直到看不见他的身影。 表 示 强 调 ， 一 般 用 until Great changes have taken place in China 状语从句在主句之前 since 1978. 时一般用逗号与主句 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化。 分开，如从句在主句 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to 之后则不必用标点符 you.我一到上海就给你写信。 号。
语 hardly ? I had hardly got home when it began to rain. hardly ? when 和 no when 我刚一到家，就下雨了。=Hardly had I got sooner ? than 的 意 义 home when it began to rain. 从 相当于 as soon as,但只 no sooner? No sooner had we got to the station than the 表 示 过 去 发 生 的 事 train left. 句 than 情，主句为过去完成 我们刚到车站，火车就走了。 时，从句为过去时， Hardly had we begun when we were told to 如 hardly 或 no sooner stop. 位于句首时语气强， 我们刚开始就被叫停。 而且主句的谓语要用 部分倒装。 every time, Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick. by the time, 我每次乘船都晕船。 the moment The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. 等 我一听到这首歌，就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you’ll see him. 下次你来的时候，就会见到他。 where 地 点 wherever 状 语 从 句 原 because 因 状 语 since 从 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。 Where there is water there is life. 哪里有水，哪里就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like. 你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law. 无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 在时间状语从句中， 不能用将来时或过去 将来时，而要用现在 时或过去时代替将来 时。 where 与 wherever 意 义基本相同，但后者 语气较强，多用于书 面语。
I came back late yesterday because I was on because 用来回答 why duty. 的问题，语气最强一 昨天我回来晚了，因为我值班。 般放在主句之后 Since everyone is here, let’s begin our since 表示既然或全已 meeting. 知的理由,稍加分析即
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可表明的原因,多放句 首 说 明
种类 从属连句 as 原 因 状 语 从 句
As he didn’t know much English, he looked 从句常放在句首，说明 up the word in the dictionary . 原因，主句说明结果， 由于他英语懂得不多，他在字典中查阅这 常用于口语中。 个单词。
now that, Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we seeing (that), now that seeing that can start our journey. 和 since, as 意义相似， 鉴于天气已经晴朗，我们可以启程了。 他们都有“鉴于某个事 Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for 实”的意思，that 可以 the doctor. 省去。 鉴于他病情严重， 我们派人去请医生去了。 I shall write down your telephone number 目的状语从句中常用情 that I may not forget. 态动词 may (might) can 我要把你的电话号码记下来，以免忘记。 (could) ,should 等放在 so that We’ll tell you the truth so that you can judge 动词之前，从句往往放 for yourself. 在主句之后，主从句之 我把真实情况告诉你，使你能自己作出判 间不用任何标点符号 断。 in order They worked harder than usual in order that that they could finish the work ahead of time . 他们比往常更加努力工作，为了能提前完 成工作。 lest = for Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) fear that you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服，以免患感冒。 that so that We turned up the radio, so that everyone so that 前有逗号为结果 heard the news. 状语从句。 我们把收音机的音量放大，大家都听到了 so?that 的 so 后面跟形 新闻。 容词或副词。 He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word. 他十分激动，以致一句话都说不出来。
目 的 状 语 从 句
结 果 状 语 从 句 such that so?that
? He gave such important reasons that he was such?that 的 such 后面 excused.他说出了这么重要的理由， 得到大 跟名词，如果名词是单 家的谅解。 数就要用 such a /an? It is such an interesting novel that all of us that 还可以转换用 so? want to read it. that，语气较强 It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有意思的书，大家都想看。 例 句 说 明 Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid unless 从句的谓语只能
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种类 从属连句 if
条 件 状 语 从 句
of them. 用肯定式。 unless 和 if? 如果我们不怕困难， 困难就算不了什么了。 同义， not unless 是书面 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains. 语，if?not 是口语，通 unless 除非下雨，我们明天就去那里。 常二者可以换用。 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn’t 条件状语从句中的谓语 rain. 动词的时态一般要用现 So/As long as you work hard, you will 在时或过去时代替一般 as/so long succeed. 将来时或过去将来时。 as 只要你努力工作，你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it . in case 万一我忘了，请提醒我一下。 so far as So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知，那本书下月出版。 as Draw a cat as I taught you . 此处 as 译为， 按照或正 按照我教你的画一只猫。 如 Do as you are told. as if 或 as though 的意义 按照人家告诉你做的去做。 和用法基本一样。从句 She looks as if she is ill. 中可以用现在时表示可 看上去她好象是生病了。 能符合事实，也可以用 He acted as if (though) nothing had 虚拟语气。 happened. 他的行动就好象什么也没有发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) 在句子中一般用了“虽 he began to learn French. 然” 就不能再用 “但是” 虽然他六十多岁了，但仍开始学习法语 。 （but）但可以与 yet 或 We were not tired though (although) we had still 连 用 。 though / worked all day. although 意义相同，用 虽然我们干了一天活，但并不累。 法基本一样， 前者通俗， 口语化，后者正式多放 主句的前面。 I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow. 即使明天下雨，我也要去。 even if 和 even though 的意思为 “即使”纵使” “ 有退一步设想的意味， 多用于书面语中。 说 明
方 式 as if? 状 as though 语 从 句 though 让 步 although 状 语 even if 从 even though 句 种类 从属连词 as 让
Child as he is , he knows a lot . as 引出的状语从句多用 虽然他是一个孩子，但他懂得很多。 于书面语，它比用 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the though 或 although 引导 children play outdoors. 的从句，语气强，更有
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no matter Do it no matter what others say. no matter ? ? 与 (who, 不管别人怎么说,尽管干。 who-ever 引导的让步状 what No matter how busy he was, he studied 语从句意义基本一 样， when, English every day. no matter??引导的从 where 不管他多忙，他都每天坚持学习英语。 句可是以位于主句前或 which, No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I 主句后。 how?) shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事， 我都将非常感激。 wh － ever Whatever happens / may happen , we shall wh－ever 从句中的动 (whatever not lose heart. 词有时可以和 may 连 whoever 无论发生什么，我们都不要失去信心。 用。 判断 wh－ever 引导 whenever Whoever comes, he will be welcome. 的是状语从句还是名词 whichever 无论谁来，都会受到欢迎。 性从句的一点是，名词 however) 性从句，主句中一定有 一个成分要在从句担 任，一般从句与主句之 间没有逗号。 不 可 将 no matter 与 wh—ever 连用 Mary is as old as my sister. 玛利和我姐姐一样大。 not so/as He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does). ?as 他不如杰克跑得那样快。 the same His book is the same as mine. ?as 他的书和我的一样。 such?as Henry is not such a good worker as Peter . 享利这个工人不如彼得那样好。 as?as than 连词表示同程度级的比 较，肯定句用 as?as 否 定句可用 not as?as 或 not so?as
比 较 状 语 从 句
She has made greater progress this year than 表示不同程度之比较， she did last year. 主句中用比较级的形容 她今年比去年进步更大。 词或副词。 He bought fewer books than I (did). 他买的书比我买的少。 例 句 说 明
种类 从属连句 比 较 状 语
the more The more you read, the better you the more?the more 意 ? the understand. 思为越?越?，通常的 more 你看的书越多，你懂得的就越多。 语序为从句在前主句在 The more tickets you sell, the more money 后，这两个 the 都是表 you will get. 示程度的副词，用在比 你卖的票越多，你的收入也越多。 较级的形容词或副词前 The harder you work, the greater progress 面。 you will make. 你工作越努力，你取得的进步就越大。
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从 句 that 特 殊 形 式 的 状 语 从 句
The sooner, the better. 越快越好。 The warmer, the better. 越暖和越好。
We are sure (that )the four modernization that 引导的从句，往往 will be realized in China . 跟在一个做表语的形容 我们相信四化一定会在中国实现。 词后面，从句概念上看 I’m sorry (that) I didn’t have time to write 是宾语，所以有的语法 you sooner. 家把它看做是宾语从 很抱歉，我没有抽出时间早点给你写信。 句，但结构上看，也可 I am afraid that I can’t go with you. 以把它看作是一个特殊 恐怕我不能同你一起去了。 的状语从句，用来修饰 表语的形容词。这种从 句的连词常常被省略。
【专项训练】 ： Ⅰ、选择填空： 1、You like sports I’d like to read. A．when B．while C．but D．yet 2、 we were singing, the teacher came in. A．Before B．after C．As D．Until 3、I was about to leave my house the phone rang. A．while B． when C．as D．after 4、They did not stop fighting there was no enemy left. A．until B．after C．when D．since 5、I have not seen him he went to college. A．when B．before C．as D．since 6、It is five days we came here. A．when B．before C．as D．since 7、It was not long he got to know it. A．when B．before C．after D．until 8、We shall go we are free. A．whenever B．whatever C．wherever D．however 9、 I live I must serve the people heart and soul. A．When B．So long as C．As soon as D．On condition 10、I was reading a novel he was watchingTV. A．when B．while C．before D．as 11、Put the medicine you can easily get it. A．so that B．where C．which D．there 12、We will go the Party wants us to go. A．wherever B．there C．to the place D．which 13、 there is a will there is a way. A．When B．Where C．Whether D．How 14、I am going you went last week. A．where B．wherever C．when D．the place 15、 you go , you should bear the motherland in your mind. A．Where B．Wherever C．Whatever D．However
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16、 weather permits, we’ll have an outing. A．For B．Though C．While D．If 17、You won’t succeed harder. A．unless you will work B．unless you work C．unless you don’t work D．if you won’t work 18、I wonder if he us, and I think if he us we’ll be able to complete the task ahead of time. A．helps, helps B．will help, helps C．helps, will help D．will help, will help 19、I don’t like to be interrupted if I . A．speak B．will speak C．am speaking D．spoke 20、If you this experiment you will understand the theory better. A．will be doing B．have done C．will have done D． would do 21、I would like to do it I like it. A．since B．because C．because of D．now that 22、 everybody is here, Let’s set off. A．Since B．Because C．For D．After 23、It was he was ill that he was absent yesterday. A．because B．as C．since D．now that 24、 it is raining, we had better take a taxi. A．For B．As C．Because of D．When 25、 “Why can’t you do it now?” “ I’m too busy.” A．Since B．As C．Because D．For 26、He must have passed this way, here are his footprints. A．since B．because of C．now that D．for 27、 everybody is here, Let’s begin our meeting. A．Now that B．Because C．For D．When 28、His speech made deep impression on the audience that they could hardly forget it. A．such a B．so a C．so D．such 29、They worked hard they finished their work ahead of time. A．so B．so that C．such that D．so as to 30、He was weak he couldn’t stand up. A．such, that B．so, that C．very, that D．so, as to 31、The foreigner spoke his interpreter could hardly catch his words. A．such fast that B．so fast C．so fast that D．so fastly that 32、The book is it gives a wrong idea of the facts. A．so writing that B．such written that C．such writing that D．so written that 33、The house cost we didn’t buy it. A．so much money that B．so many money that C．such much money that D．such many money that 34、It is all of us can do it. A．so easy exercise that B．such easy an exercise C．such easy exercise D．so easy an exercise that 35、She has she remembers all the names of the students she has taught. A．so good memory that B．such a good memory that
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C．such good memory that D．good memory 36、They stopped at Tianjing they might visit the TV tower. A．so B．because C．so that D．in order 37、We all got up early we might start at six. A．in order that B．in order to C．so D．so as to 38、Let the dog loose so that it have a run. A．should B．must C．could D．need 39、 clearly so that your teacher you correctly. A．Write, can understand B．Having written, can understand C．To write, could understand D．Writing, will understand 40、He started early so that he there in time. A．could get B．got C．had got D．would have got 41、 it was late , she went on working. A．Though B．Because C．Since D．Whether 42、 we fail , we trying. A．Even if , don’t stop B．Even though, won’t stop C．Even, will not stop D．Even although, shall never stop 43、 the pain was bad, he did not complain. A．Although, but B．Though, but C．Though, yet D．Even, still 44、 physics, he likes maths better. A．As he much likes B．Much as he likes C．Much likes as he D．Likes much as he 45、 telephones, tell him I’m out. A．No matter whoever B．Who C．Whoever D．Anyone 46、We’ll carry the reform to the end happens. A．no matter how B．whatever C．anything D．no matter which 47、It takes time to go there by plane than by ship. A．far fewer B．far less C．much fewer D．more less 48、He is taller than in his class. A．others B．all the students C．any other one D．the other 49、 it was finished in time. A．As the work was difficult B．Difficult as the work was C．Difficult as was the work D．As was the work difficult 50、I am sorry I have caused so much trouble. A．that B．for C．as D．since 51、 he came, he would bring us a lot of flowers. A．Every times B．one time C．Every time D．Once a time 52、I’ll tell him about it I see him. A．as soon as B．so soon as C．while D．as 53、I had hardly sat down the telephone rang A．than B．when C．as D．after 54、Sit you like.
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A．where B．at the place C．as D．wherever 55、 he wasn’t ready in time, we went without him. A．Since B．As C．For D．Because of 56、All plants need air they need water. A．like B．as if C．as D．so 57、Work hard you can succeed. A．in order to B．so that C．for fear that D．in case 58、If you I will go with you. A．go to B．went C．will D．should go 59、The hard he works, he will make. A．the greater B．the greater progress C．and the more D．more 60、 we have thought it over , we’ll take steps. A．Till, not B．When , no C．Until, any D．Until, no Ⅱ、改错 1、It won’t matter even he refuses. 2、Jim imagined that the whole world knew of his achievements, when in fact only a few people had heard of it . 3、He realized that his house must have been broken into the minute he got home and saw that everything was in a mess. 4、He was looking for the dictionary whenever he thought he might have put it . 5、No matter if he is free, he must go to the library. 6、I have not missed a play or a concert when I was seventeen years old. 7、Next time that I plan to travel in London, I’m going to take a plane. 8、I’m not going to talk on the point any further, though it is neither important nor very interesting. 9、Much since I like all the books, I can’t afford to buy them. 10、Alic was waiting for the bus then she noticed a thief running out of a shop. 11、It has been two and a half months ago since he left. 12、Though the work was difficult, but we managed to finish it in time. 13、The test shows that Jack has a much quicker mind than any student in his class. 14、He left for Guangzhou by train last Monday. He ought to have arrived, I think.. 15、They wrote to the boss in order they could improve their working conditions. 16、He goes fishing wherever he has time, which is not often. 17、I don’t know when he comes tomorrow . If he comes , let me know at once. 18、When you read a book, you’d better make a mark that you have any questions. 19、Ships are much more slower than planes that few people take them on business. 20、She has such little education that she is unfit for the job. 【答案】 ： Ⅰ、 1、 B 2、C 3、B 4、A 5、D 6、D 7、B 8、 A 9、B 10、B 11、B 12、A 13、B 14、A 15、B 16、D 17、B 18、B 19、C 20、B 21、B 22、A 23、A 24、B 25、C 26、D 27、A 28、A 29、B 30、B 31、C 32、D 33、A 34、D 35、B 36、C 37、A 38、C 39、A 40、A 41、A 42、B 43、C 44、B 45、C 46、B 47、B 48、C 49、B 50、A 51、C 52、A 53、B 54、D 55、B 56、C 57、B 58、C
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59、B 60、D Ⅱ、 1、even 后加 if 2、when—while 3、minute—moment 4、whenever—wherever 5、if —whether 6、when —since 7、that 去掉或改为 when 8、though—because 9、since—as 10、then—when 11、ago 去掉 12、but 去掉 13、any 后加 other 14、? 15、order 后加 that wherever—whenever 17、第一个 comes—will come （宾从时态不限） 18、that—where 19、more 去掉 20、such—so 十、 “It”的用法和“There be”结构 知识要点： 一、代词 it 用 法 例 句 代替前文提到过 This is a new dictionary. I bought it yesterday. 的东西或事情， 这是一本新词典，我昨天买的。 用作人称代词。 Tom joined the army last mouth. Do you know about it? 汤姆上月入伍了，你知道这事吗？ 代替指示代词， Is this your car? No, it isn’t. 这是你的汽车吗？不是。 起着 this 或 that What’s that?—It’s a video. 那是什么？它是一台录像机。 的作用 Whose room is this?—It is theirs.这是谁的房间，是他们的。 指明某人或某物 Who’s there? It’s me. (It’s John) 谁在那儿？是我。 （是约翰） 的身分，还可指 Go and see who it is that rings. It’s Bill. 不明性别的婴儿 去看看是谁来的电话，是比尔。 The Greens have a new baby. It’s lovely. 格林家有一个新生婴儿。它很可爱。 指时间，距离， It’s Sunday today. 今天是星期天。 It’s 自然现象 （天气， three months since he came here. 气候，明暗）量 自从他来到这里，已经三个月了。 度，价值等 How far is it to the Great Wall .到长城有多远？ It’s getting dark. 天快黑了。 —How much is the coat? —It’s ninety dollars. 这件衣服多少钱？九十美元。 二、引导词 it 用 法 例 句 代 替不 定 It is up to you to decide. 这事要由你决定。 It makes me happy to hear you have recovered. 形 式短语 听说你恢复了健康，这使我很高兴。 式 代 替动 名 It’s no good smoking. 吸烟没有好处。 It’s worthwhile working the whole night on the problem. 词短语 主 用整夜的时间来研究那个问题是值得的。 代 替主 语 It doesn’t matter what you do. 你干什么都没有关系。 It seems that everyone has known the news. 语 从句 好象大家都知道这个消息。 I consider it better to be early.
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代 替不 定 我认为能够早一些更好。 We found it impossible to get there before July . 形 式短语 式 我们觉得，要在七月以前到达那里是不可能的。 宾 代 替动 名 We thought it no use doing that. 语 词短语 我们认为做那事没有用。 代 替宾 语 The teacher makes it clear that everyone should hand in his homework on time . 从句 老师清楚地指出，每个人都应该按时交作业。 三、it 在强调结构中 强调句型：It is (was) +被强调部分+ that (who) + 其它 强调 部分 主 例 句 说 明
语 It is I who am to blame. 是我该受责怪。 原句的谓语动词如果是 It was your uncle that (who) came 现 在 或 将 来 时 态 用 It yesterday. is ?that(who)如果原句 昨天来的是你叔叔。 谓语动词是过去时态， 则 用 It was?that(who)。在 语 It was a new pen that Mother gave me . 母亲给我的是一支新钢笔。 地点 It was in the classroom that I left my umbrella. 我把雨伞就落在了教室里。 强调时间， 地点， 原因或 方 式 时 不 要 用 when, where, how, 必须用 that。
时间 It is at eleven that the train leaves. 状 火车是在十一点钟离开。 方式 It was just as he ordered that I acted. 我正是照他吩咐的那样做的。 语 原因 It was because he was in trouble that I tried my best to help him. 正是因为他处境困难我才尽力帮助他。 宾 补 It was red that we painted the gate. 我们把门油漆成红的颜色。 It was chairman that they elected him . 他们选他担任的是主席的职务。 there be 结构 基本句型 肯定句 there 否定句 be 结 构 例 句 there be +主+其它 There is a map on the wall. 墙上有张地图。 there be + not +主+ There is not a map on the wall. 其它 墙上没有地图。
一般疑问句 be + there +主+其 Is there a map on the wall? 结构 它 墙上有地图吗？ 肯定与否定 回答 Yes ,there is . No, there isn’t. 是的，有 不，没有
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特殊疑问 wall? 句及回答
特殊疑问词+ be + there +主+其它
—How many maps are there on the 墙上有多少张地图？ —There are two. 有两张
注 There be 句型也可以由其它动词代替 be，常用的词有 seem to be , 1： happen to be ,appear to be, used to be 等词组或用 live, come, stand, lie, occur, exist, flow 等动词。 There seems to be much hope of our team beating theirs. 好象我们队很有希望打败他们队。 Only there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 从前有一位老渔夫住在海边的一个村子里。 注 There be 之后如有几个并列主语时， is 或用 are 要取决于第一个主语 用 2： 是单数还有复数，单数用 is,复数则用 are. There is a pen, a pencil and two books on the desk. 桌上有一支钢笔，一支铅笔和两本书。 There are two books, a pen and a pencil on the desk. 桌上有两本书，一支钢笔和一支铅笔。 【专项训练】 it 的用法 1、 “Do you like fish?” “Yes, I like .” A．× B．it C．that D．them 2、 today? A．How is it B．What is it C．What is it like D．How is the weather. 3、 “Do you want a watch?” “ .” A．Yes, I want it . B．Yes, I want one. C．No, I’ve got it. D．No, I’ve got the watch. 4、 “Whose exercise-book is that?” “ hers” A．That is B．This is C．It’s D．Its 5、 won’t take long to get to Shanghai by air. A．That B．He C．It D．This 6、What he has done helps us a lot, ? A．isn’t he B．doesn’t he C．isn’t it D．doesn’t it 7、We all thought no use doing that. A．it B．that C．this D．there 8、I took it for granted you would come to our party. A．when B．why C．for what D．that 9、How happy to be able to study and live together with you! A．that will be B．is it C．will it be D．it will be 10、I thought it to be . A．him B．he C．its D．she 11、 very foolish of you to say so. A．It’s B．Its C．That’s D．This 12、It’s not his habit for things. A．asks B．ask C．to ask D．asked
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13、It has been a great honour coming to visit me. A．they B．you C．she D．he 14、I found to hear what he said. A．that difficulty B．it difficulty C．that difficult D．it difficult 15、He is fifty , but doesn’t A．look at it B．look for it C．look it D．look him 16、It was who telephoned me yesterday. A．him B．his C．himself D．he 17、The sentence is wrong. A．its B．it C．itself D．it’s 18、 is no doubt that he will succeed in his experiment. A．It B．This C．That D．There 19、It seems John’s not coming after all. A．this B．that C．if D．to 20、 was a handbag that John gave Mary at Christmas. A．It B．This C．That D．Such 21、Was the room the famous writer had ever lived in? A．that, it B．it , that C．it , where D．that, which 22、 is said that he has been to many places in the United States. A．This B．He C．It D．That 23、What you want me to do? A．it is B．that C．is this D．is it that 24、Is not important who will go? A．it B．that C．this D．× 25、Why is it everyone thinks he’s a thief? A．because B．as C．when D．that 26、 being Sunday, the library was closed. A．What B．It C．That D．This 27、Is believed he is ill? A．it, that B．he, that C．it, if D．he, for 28、 is known to us Mary dances best. A．She, × B．It, that C．It, she D．She, who 29、 “What’s this?” “ a flag.” A．This is B．That’s C．It’s D．Its 30、Jack is ill. Have you heard about ? A．him B．it C．this D．that There be 结构 31、Is a typewriter in the room? A．he B．there C．it D．has 32、There’s no one in the house, is ? A．it B．he C．there D．they 33、 must be something wrong. A．It B．He C．There D．They 34、 there anyone around?
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A．Was B．Were C．There D．Has 35、 used to be a church round the corner. A．Here B．There C．It D．It is 36、It is reported that is going to be a storm. A．it B．there C．× D．the weather 37、There still a lot of work to be done before the house is ready for occupation. A．are B．were C．is D．have 38、There is a girl for the bus. A．to wait B．waiting C．waited D．wait 39、There a pine tree at the top of the hill. A．stands B．lies C．lives D．has 40、 will be a good film on at the Rex next week. A．There B．It C．That D．This 改错,下列每句所给的选项中，各有一项是错的，请指出并改正。 41、He is certain that the secretary will be there. A B C D 42、I think that a good idea to get up early. A B C D 43、It makes me feel sad that see you. A B C D 44、Do you find it very dull live here? A B C D 45、It is no use to cry over spilt milk. AB C D 46、There it must have been a mistake. A B C D 47、There is going to have an English party at the weekend. A B C D 48、Is there any one who waiting to see me ? A B C D 49、There have a man sitting beyond that fence. A B C D 50、It was a car ready for us. A B C D 【答案】 ： 1、B 2、D 3、B 4、C 5、C 6、D 7、A 8、D 9、D 10、A 11、A 12、C 13、B 14、D 15、C 16、D 17、C 18、A 19、B 20、A 21、B 22、C 23、D 24、A 25、D 26、B 27、A 28、B 29、C 30、B 31、B 32、C 33、C 34、A 35、B 36、B 37、C 38、B 39、A 40、A 41、A He－it 42、B that－it 43、C that－to 44、D live 前加 to 45、C to cry－crying 46、B it 去掉 47、B have－be 48、C who 后加 is 或把 who 去掉 49、A have－is 50、A It －There
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十一、交 际 英 语 知识要点： 一、Greeting（问候） 1、Good morning! (afternoon, evening) 2、Hello! (Hi) 3、How do you do? 4、How are you? 5、How are you getting on with your studies? 6、How's everything with you? 7、Did you have a nice holiday? (summer vacation) 二、Introduction（介绍） A．Introduction: 1、 This is my friend, Tom.. 2、Let me introuduce you to my friend, Tom. 3、May I introduce myself? I'm Tom. 4、Please allow me to introduce my friend, Tom. 5、I'd like you to meet my friend Tom. B．Responses: 1、How do you do? Pleased to meet you. (Glad to meet you. Nice to meet you.) 2、It's my pleasure to have this chance to meet you. 三、Farewells（告别） A．Farewells: 1、It's getting late. I must be going. 2、It's five o'clock already. I must be off now. 3、Oh, God, it's late, I've got to go. 4、It's time I was going, I'm afraid. 5、I think I must go now. 6、I think I'd better leave. 7、I'm glad to have met you. B．Responses: 1、Come again whenever you are free. 2、If you pass my home, drop in. 3、Good night, have a nice dream. 4、Can't you stay a little longer? 5、I hope we'll meet again sometime. 四、Asking and Directing the Way（问路和指路） A．Asking the way: 1、Can you tell me the way to the post office? 2、Is this the way to the post office? 3、Excuse me, how can I get to the post office? 4、Which is the nearest way to the post office? 5、Is the post office far from here? 6、How long will it take me to get to the post office? 7、Excuse me, is there a post office near here? 8、Excuse me, does this bus go to the post office? B．Responses:
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1、Go ahead till you come to the next crossing. 2、No, it's not far from here. It's only about ten minutes' walk. 3、It's about 200 yards down the street. 4、Take Bus No. 3 and it will take you right there. 5、Go down the street and take the second turning on the left. 五、Asking for Time and Date（询问时间与日期） A．Asking: 1、What time is it now? 2、What's the time by your watch? 3、What day is it today? 4、What is the date today? 5、Is your watch correct? B．Responses: 1、It's ten. 2、It's Wednesday. 3、It's October, 8th. 4、My watch says it's 7:30. 5、My watch always keeps good time. 六、Asking about Health（询问健康） A．Asking: 1、How are you these days? 2、What's wrong with you? 3、Have you seen the doctor? 4、You look tired. What's wrong? B．Responses: 1、I'm not quite myself today. 2、My stomach hurts. 3、I don't feel like eating anything today. 4、I've got a bad cold. 七、Talking about Weather（谈论天气） 1、It's a fine day, isn't it? 2、What's the temperature today? 3、What's the weather like today? 4、How is the weather? 5、What's the weather going to be like at the weekend? 6、Do you like the weather in Beijing? 7、Do you think that we are going to have snow today? 八、Invitations（邀请） A．Invitations: 1、Would you like to come to my birthday party? 2、Will you be able to come to my birthday party? 3、I'd be very glad if you would come to my birthday party. 4、Can you fix a time for a picnic? 5、Are you free tomorrow? What (How) about having a picnic? 6、Won't you come with me? 7、You will come to have dinner with me, won't you?
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B．Responses: 1、I'd be glad to, thank you. 2、It's very kind of you to invite me. 3、I'd like to, but I'm too busy. 4、Thank you for your kind invitation, I will. 5、I'm afraid not. I will have to look after my sick mother. 6、I'm sorry, I can't. Thank you very much. 九、Making an Appointment（约会） A．Making an appointment: 1、Are you free this afternoon? 2、How about tomorrow evening? 3、Shall we meet at 7:00 at the gate of the cinema? 4、When will you be able to see us? 5、What time can I call on you? 6、Will you be at home next Sunday? 7、Don't forget to come to my birthday party. B．Responses: 1、Tomorrow evening will be all right. 2、Yes, I'll be free then. 3、No, I won't be free then, but I'll be free next Wednesday. 十、Making a phone call（打电话） A．Making a call: 1、Hello, is Mary in? 2、Hello, is that Mary speaking? 3、Can I have your telephone number, please? 4、Hello, may I speak to Mary? 5、Could you ask him to call me, please? 6、Who is it, please? B．Responses: 1、This is Mary speaking. 2、Hold on please. 3、Mary, you are wanted on the phone. 4、Mary isn't here right now. Can I take a message for you? 十一、Shopping（购物） A．Shop assistant: 1、What can I do for you? 2、Can (May) I help you? 3、How much do you want? 4、What about this (these)? B．Customer: 1、I'd like to have a look at the sweater. 2、That's too expensive (dear), I'm afraid. 3、That's fine. I'll take it. 4、How much is it? 十二、Seeing the Doctor（看病） A．Doctor:
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1、What's wrong (the matter) with you? 2、How long have you been like this? 3、Let me examine you. 4、Take this medicine three times a day. 5、Drink plenty of water and take a good rest. 6、It's nothing serious. Take it easy. B．Patient: 1、There's something wrong with my stomach. 2、I've got a pain here. 3、I feel terrible (sick). 4、This place hurts. 5、I don't feel like eating anything. 十三、Requests and Offers（请求与提供帮助） A．Requests: 1、Can (could) you do something for me? 2、Will (would) you do something for me? 3、May I have some ice—cream? 4、Please do me a favor. 5、Please don't open the window. 6、Do (Would) you mind turning down the radio? 7、I wonder if you could lend me some money. B．Offers: 1、Can (Shall) I help you? 2、What can I do for you? 3、Is there anything (else) I can do for you? 4、Would you like me to do this for you? 5、Would you like some help? 十四、Asking for Permission（请求允许） A．Ask for permission: 1、May I park my car here? 2、Can (Could) I smoke in this room? 3、Do (Would) you mind if I smoke (smoked) here? 4、I wonder if I could smoke here. B．Responses: 1、Certainly. (sure, of course), go ahead 2、Yes, please. 3、All right (OK). 4、I'm sorry, it's not allowed. 5、I'm afraid not. 十五、Advice and Suggestions（劝告和建议） 1、You'd better go to see the doctor. 2、You should do it at once. 3、Why not go on a picnic next Sunday? 4、What (How) about going there by boat? 5、Have you considered going there by boat? 6、Shall we take a walk after supper?
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7、I suggest you do more reading. 8、I advise you to take more exercises. 【专项训练】 一、Greeting 1、—Hello, Joan. — Kate. Glad to see you. A．Hi B．Hello C．Good morning D．How do you do 2、—Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine. — . You look well too. A．Great B．Thanks C．Oh, no D．Not at all 3、—How are you! Jane? — A．How are you, Mary? B．Fine, thanks, and you? C．All is right. D．That's good. 4、—How do you do? — . A．Very well, thank you. B．Why, yes. I'm fine. C．How do you do? D．What about you? 5、—How's everything with you? — . A．Fine, thanks B．It's all right C．Thank very much D．I'm very well 6、—How's your work going? — A．Not too well, I'm afraid. B．Quite good. What about you? C．Fine, how are you, then? D．Well, thanks a lot. 7、—Did you have a good summer holiday? —Yes, thanks. Kate? —She's OK, thanks. A．what's is B．How is C．What's wrong D．and 8、—Glad to meet you again. How are you? —I'm just .（老样子） A．my old self B．old myself C．myself old D．as old myself 9、—It's nice to see you in New York. How's your family? — . My wife asked me to say hello to you. A．It's very well B．They are fine C．That's all right D．They are good 10、—How's the young man? — . A．He's twenty B．He's a doctor C．He's much better D．He's David
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11、—How on with your new job these days? —Not bad. A．do you get B．did you get C．are you getting D．have you getting 12、—Hello, Kate! Fancy meeting you here! Working again, are you? —Yes, , if I want to pass the exams. A．I've got to B．no other way C．I must do D．I have on way 13、In the evening you meet your foreign teacher walking towards the reataurant, you should say A．Good evening. B．Good night. C．Hello. Have you had your supper? D．Hi! Going to dinner. 二、Introduction 1、—Hi, Tom, this is my friend John. — A．Nice to meet you. B．How are you? C．Hi, Tom, I'm John. D．Are you Tom? 2、—Let me introduce myself. I'm Albert. — . A．With a pleasure B．It's my pleasure C．I'm very pleased D．Pleased to meet you 3、When you are introduced to someone, you should say A．I'm getting on well B．I love you very much C．Fine, thank you. D．How do you do? 4、—Have you met my girl friend, Susan? Susan, this is Li. — A．Glad to meet you. B．Thank you. C．How are you? D．Welcome home. 5、—Please allow me to introuduce Mr. Smith, director of the department. — （久仰大名） A．I haven't seen you before. B．Haven't we met before? C．I've heard so much about you. D．How do you do? 6、If Mr. Baker is here, will please make to me? A．you, yourself know B．you, you know C．he, us know D．he, himself know 7、 Let's give him a . A．warm welcome B．warming welcome C．warmly welcome D．warm welcoming 三、Farewells 1、—It's five o'clock already, I must be going. —Well, come again you are free. A．if B．whenever C．when D．while 2、—Oh, God, it's late. I've got to go.
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— . Hope to see them soon. A．Give your parents my greetings B．Remember me to your parents C．Show my greetings to your parents D．Say hello to your parents 3、—It's time I was going, I'm afraid. — . A．Good evening B．Good night C．Bey—bey D．All the best 4、—Well, I'd better let you get on with your work. — . A．I've wasted a lot of your time B．Thank you for a lovely afternoon C．You must be tired D．I'm sorry to trouble you 5、—I'm flying home on Sunday morning. —I wish you . A．a pleasant journey home B．a good trip C．good lucky D．a happy journey travel 6、—I think I must go now. See you later. — . A．You can go B．See you later C．Bye—bye D．So long 7、—I'm glad to have met you. Drop by sometime. — . A．Thank you B．Give me a call C．Thanks, I certainly will D．Take care 8、—It's very kind of you to come and see me off. — . A．It's my pleasure B．much better C．Don't say it D．No problem 9、—I'm going camping this weekend. — . A．Can you fish? B．Have a good time C．No, I'm too busy D．Don't give up now 10、—I'll go to Beijing this weekend. . A．You are lucky B．The best of luck C．Thank you D．Good—bye 四、Asking and Directing the Way 1、—Excuse me, can you tell me where the nearest bus stop is? —I'm sorry, I have no idea. I . A．don't know B．am a strager here C．am new D．just come 2、— will it take me to walk there? — About ten minutes.
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A．How far B．How long C．How much D．What far 3、—Excuse me, is there a cinema around here? —Yes, please go , then turn right the first crossing. A．before, on B．ahead, at C．along, of D．forward, to 4、—Excuse me, officer. I can't find the subway entrance. —See those glass doors? Go in and you will see it on your right. A．Can you help me? B．Where is it? C．Show me the way? D．You are very helpful 5、—Is your school far from here? —Not very far, . A．it is about ten minutes' walk B．it nees to walk ten minutes C．you need walking ten minutes D．it is about ten—minutes walk 6、—Could you tell me where the train station is? — . A．It's over there B．It's on the third floor C．No, I know little D．Yes, it's there 7、—Excuse me, is this Mr. Brown's office? —I'm sorry, but Mr. Brown works here. A．not now B．no more C．not still D．no longer 8、—Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the Sleeping Beauty Castle? —Yes, . A．Go down this road B． Go ahead till you see the entrance C．It's not far from here D．You can walk there 五、Asking for Time and Date 1、— ? —It's the third of May? A．What day is it B．What's the date C．What's the time D．What's the clock 2、— ? —I'm sorry, my watch has stopped. A．When is it B．How much is it C．What is the time D．What's the clock 3、—Is your watch right? —I think so. I set it the radio this morning. A．to B．of C．by D．through 4、—What day is it today? — . A．July 27 B．Saturday C．the 27 of July D．Women's Day 5、—How long has this bookshop been in business? — 1982. A．After B．In C．From D．Since
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6、—When are you off? — at 21:24. —I hope you will have a good flight. A．My bus leaves B．My plane takes off C．My train goes D．My coach goes 7、— will the work be ready? — two months. A．How long, After B．How often, For C．How soon, In D．How much, During 8、—Is your watch correct? —Yes, my watch . A．runs well B．keeps good time C．keeps right D．never stops 六、Asking about Health 1、—How's your brother these days? —He hasn't been to well. — What's the matter? A．It's bad. B．I'm sorry to here that. C．Very badly. D．Why? 2、—I haven't seen Bob lately. —As a matter of fact, he is ill. A．Where is he? B．Why? C．How is he? D．What does he do? 3、—You sound as if you've got a cold. . — . —Get a good rest. A．Yes, as if B．I've been over—working C．I don't think so D．I hope not 4、—I'm afraid I've got a bad cold. — . A．Never mind B．Keep away from me C．Better go and see a doctor D．You need to take medicine 5、—John has caught a bad cold. — . A．It's too bad B．I don't believe it C．I'm sorry to hear that D．Take it easy 6、— , Wang? —I've got a headache and I feel chilly. A．What's wrong B．What the matter is C．What is matter D．How about you 7、—My stomach hurts. I feel sick. —For safety's sake, . A．go to see a doctor tomorrow B．Better to go to hospital
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C．you'd better see a doctor at once D．Quick go to hospital 七、Talking about Weather 1、—It seems to be clearing up. —That will be a nice change, ? A．isn't it B．won't it C．can't it D．doesn't it 2、—How cold is it today? — . A．Just so—so B．not too C．It's ten below zero D．Yes, it is 3、— ? —It's very cold and damp. A．What's the weather B．How's the weather today C．Is it raining last night D．Might it have rained a lot 4、—Do you like the weather in North China? —Not really, but now. A．I fit it B．I am used to it C．I used to it D．I agree to it 5、—I wonder what the weather is going to be like tomorrow? — . —That's a good idea. A．Let's look through the paper B．Let's listen to the weather report on the radio C．Better be care of the radio D．Pay attention to the radio 6、— . —It certainly is. The sun is shining and there is a pleasant breeze. —It's lovely. A．What nice it is B．How nice it is here C．It is like spring here D．What a good day here 7、—What a nice day, isn't it? — A．You're right. B．Yes, isn't it? C．Yes, I agree. D．Really? 8、— ? —Yes, a bit cold, though. A．Cold weather, isn't it B．Bad weather, don't you think C．Freezing, isn't it D．Nice day, isn't it 9、— today? —It's nice and warm. A．What's the weather B．What's the weather like
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C．How is the weather like D．How does the weather look like 10、—Do you think it is going to snow over the weekend? — . A．I don't believe B．I don't believe it C．I believe not so D．I believe not 八、Invitations 1、—Would you like to come around for a meal on my birthday? —Oh, yes. Thank you very much. A．When is your birthday? B．What day is your birthday? C．When were you born? D．What time is your birthday? 2、—Have you got anything to do tomorrow? — . A．Yes, a lot of B．No, I won't be busy C．Certainly have D．Oh, that's a pity 3、—Would you like to come to the cinema, Frank? — I have to do my homework. A．I don't, I'm afraid. B．I can't, I'm afraid. C．I'm sorry. D．Oh, pity! 4、—Helen, I'd be glad if you would come and have tea with us on Friday. — . A．I try to go B．Many thanks for your kind invitation, I will C．I am very busy D．I must go 5、—How about going to "Grand" for dinner? — . It's a long time since we had a good meal. A．well B．That sounds like a good idea C．Thank you D．But I'm too busy 6、—Do you have to go? Can't you stay and have a meal? — I really think I must be off now. A．I'd love to, but B．Yes, I must C．No, I don't have to but D．Yes, I can, but 7、—Would you like to come to the party tomorrow? — . A．I'd like B．I like it C．I'd like to D．I'd like it 8、—Will you be able to come and see us on Friday? — . I will have to work. A．I believe yes B．I don't hope so C．I won't be able to D．I'm afraid not 9、—Shall I call for you of will you call for me? —You'd better come for me, ?
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A．can you B．OK C．really D．would you 10、—Would you like to come to dinner tonight? —I'd like to, I'm too busy. A．and B．so C．as D．but 九、Making an Appointment 1、—Good morning, I'd like to see Mr. Baker, please. —Mr. Baker is quite busy. . A．You can't see him B．You won't be able to see him C．I'm afraid you won't be able to see him today. D．Please come next time. 2、—Will you be able to come to see us sometime next month? — . A．I believe yes B．I don't hope so C．I won't be able to D．I'm afraid not 3、—When will you be free this month, Mr. Smith? — , maybe we'll be free next Sunday. A．Let me be B．Let me seeC．I'm afraid D．Think it over 4、—What time can I call on you? —Any time this evening will be . A．OK B．right C．good D．free 5、—I'm sorry to say that I can't come to your party tonight. — ? Haven't we agreed on? A．What is it B．What is it now C．How is it D．What do you think 6、—I have an appointment with Mr. Black. My name is John Brown. —Ah, yes, your appointment is at 4:15. , please, Mr. Brown? A．Wait a minute B．May you wait C．Can you wait a minute D．Take it easy 7、—I'm sorry to keep you waiting. —Oh, not at all. I here only a few minutes. A．have been B．had been C．was D．will be 8、—I'll come back tomorrow evening at nine. Can you meet me at the airport? — . A．All right B．All right. Nice to see you C．OK, wait for me D．All right. See you then 9、—Will you be at home next Sunday? — A．Yes, but why? B．No, never mind. C．Not at all. D．Yes, of course not. 10、—Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. — . A．I don't B．I won't C．I can't D．I haven't 十、Making a phone call 1、—Hello, is Henry in? —I'm sorry, he isn't here. ?
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A．What's the matter B．May I help you C．Is there anything D．Who are you 2、—Could you ask him to call me, please? — ! What's your name, please? A． Sure B．Oh C．Yes D．Well 3、— ? —Sure, it's 65250786. A．What's your telephone number B．Can I have your telephone number C．Can I help you D．Can you make your telephone number 4、The operator put him to 65250786. A．over B．on C．through D．in 5、—Would you please tell John I called? — , please. A．Hold on B．Hold up C．Hold over D．Hold out 6、—Is this number 61234567? — . A．No, you are wrong B．Sorry, you've got the wrong phone C．No, you've dialed the wrong number D．No, you are right 7、—Hello. May I speak to Zhou Lan? —Yes. . A．My name is Zhou Lan B．I'm Zhou Lan C．This is Zhou Lan speaking D．Zhou Lan's me 8、—Do you want to have a message? —No, thanks. I in half an hour. A．will call again B．can call C．may phone him D．would call 十一、Shopping 1、—I'd like to buy a ten—speed bicycle. —How about this kind of type? — ? A．How many is it B．How is it C．How much is it D．How expensive is 2、— do you want? —Half a kilo, please. A．How many apples B．What are apples C．How many apple D．How much apples 3、—What's the problem? —I'm afraid . It's a size 12 and it's too small. A．it don't suit B．it isn't fit C．it doesn't fit D．it isn't suit 4、—How much is the blue skirt?
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—Ten dollars. A．How many size do you want? B．What size do you take? C．How large do you want? D．What size do you dress? 5、—What about the dark blue sweater? —I like it, but it . You decide. A．costs too much B．take too much C．cost too many D．spends too much 6、—Would you mind if I looked at some of your tape recorders? — . A．I'd better to see what the boss has to say about it B．Not at all, sir. Go right ahead C．Thank you for your coming D．Yes, do that, sir 7、—Do you think the shirt really fits me? — . It goes well with your tie, too. A．Of course it does B．Yes, it does C．I am not sure D．Perhaps it does 8、—Shall I ask the shop keeper if I can . —OK. And we'd better ask Mom whether it's cheap enough. A．take it on B．try it on C．wear D．put it on 9、—How much did you the dress? —We 210 yuan for it. A．spend, pay for B．pay for, cost for C．pay for, paid D．take, pay 十二、Seeing the Doctor 1、—Well, ? —I feel hot and feverish. A．how do you feel like B．what's the matter with you C．what do you feel D．what illness do you have 2、— ? —Yes, I have. My temperature seems all right. A．Do you know your temperature B．Have you taken your temperature C．Have you had your temperature D．Do you have your temperature 3、—Oh, doctor. Are you sure it's nothing serious? —Yes, . I'm sure of that. A．he'll well soon B．he can be right quickly C．he'll be all right soon D．he'll be good soon 4、—You haven't had your lunch? —I had a little, but . A．I didn't feel like eating
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B．I didn't feel like to eat C．I didn't like to eating D．I didn't want to eating 5、— ? —I'm feeling even worse after taking the medicine. A．Are you feeling better B．How are you feeling C．How are you getting on D．How are you going 6、—How about your headache now? —I can't get rid of it. I don't know what's the matter. —Take it easy. . —Thank you, doctor. A．Take this medicine before you go to bed B．Drink plenty of water and take a good rest C．Take this medicine a day three times D．Go home and lie in bed for a good rest 7、—My whole body feels weak and I've got a headache. — ? A．How long ago did you get it this B．How long have you been like this C．How soon have you got it D．How soon have you liked this 十三、Requests and Offers 1、—Can I count on you for help? — A．As you like. B．I'm sorry. C．Yes, you certainly can D．Why do you ask? 2、—Could you spare me some ink? — . A．Yes, of course B．Not at all C．Yes, I cold D．Never mind 3、—Let me help you carry the box. —No, I can manage, but . A．not at all B．it doesn't matter C．thank you just the same D．the same to you 4、—Will you make me a kite? — . A．I'm glad B．I'll be glad C．I'm going to glad D．I'll be glad to 5、—You seem to get lost. Need help? — A．Yes, would you help me with the bag? B．Yes, take me please. C．Help me find the key, please. D．I'm looking for Shanghai Road. 6、—I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat? —Not at all. .
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A．I've no time B．I'd rather not C．I'd like it D．I'd be happy to 7、If you want to ask someone for help, which drills shouldn't you say ? A．Could you do me a favor B．Would you do me a favor C．May I ask a favor of you D．Can you give me a help 8、—Can I have some meat? —Certainly, just . A．take it as you like B．eat it as you please C．help yourself D．help yourself at home 十四、Asking for Permission 1、—Would you mind if I played the violin here? — . A．No, you won't B．No, do as you please C．Yes, I don't mind D．Yes, do as you please 2、—May I stop here? —No, you . A．mustn't B．might not C．needn't D．won't 3、—Shall I tell John about it? —No, you . I've told him already. A．needn't B．wouldn't C．mustn't D．shouldn't 4、—Can I use your tape recorder for a while? —Yes, . A．go ahead B．you can't broke it C．all right D．no, sorry 5、 ? I didn't quite catch you. A．Will you please repeat it again B．Pardon C．What did you say D．Say it again now 6、Dick wants to go to the toilet during the class. He puts up his hand and says to his teacher: A．Excuse me, I can't stand any longer. B．Will you please let me go? C．Please, sir, may I be excused? D．I must go outside. 7、—Can I go and have a look at it? —Yes, of course. . A．After me B．Come this way C．You may look D．This direction 十五、Advice and Suggestions 1、—I usually go there by train. —Why not by boat for a change? A．to try going B．trying to go C．to try and go D．try going 2、—I'd like information about the management of your hotel.
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—Well, you could have word with the manager, he might be helpful A．some, a B．an, some C．some, some D．an, a 3、—I'm afraid I've got a bad cold. — . A．Never mind B．Keep away from the medicine C．Better go and see a doctor D．You need take a medicine 4、—I can't see the words on the blackboard. —Perhaps you need . A．to examine your eyes B．to have your eyes examined C．to have examined your eyes D．your eyes to be examined 5、—Let's go and see our teacher on Teachers' Day. A．That's will do B．That's all C．That's all right D．All right 【答案】 一、Greetings: 1、B 2、B 3、B 4、C 5、A 6、B 7、B 8、A 9、B 10、C 11、C 12、A 13、A 二、Introduction: 1、A 2、D 3、D 4、A 5、C 6、D 7、A 三、Farewells: 1、B 2、D 3、B 4、B 5、A 6、B 7、C 8、A 9、B 10、B 四、Asking and Directing the Way: 1、B 2、B 3、B 4、A 5、A 6、A 7、D 8、B 五、Asking for Time and Date: 1、B 2、C 3、C 4、B 5、D 6、B 7、C 8、B 六、Asking about Health: 1、B 2、C 3、B 4、C 5、C 6、A 7、C 七、Talking about Weather: 1、B 2、C 3、B 4、B 5、B 6、B 7、B 8、D 9、B 10、D 八、Invitation: 1、B 2、B 3、B 4、B 5、B 6、A 7、C 8、D 9、B 10、D 九、Making an Appointment: 1、C 2、D 3、B 4、A 5、C 6、C 7、A 8、D 9、A 10、B
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十、Making a Phone Call: 1、B 2、A 3、B 6、C 7、C 8、A 十一、Shopping: 1、C 2、A 3、C 6、B 7、A 8、B 十二、Seeing the Doctor: 1、B 2、B 3、C 6、A 7、B 十三、Requests and Offers: 1、C 2、A 3、C 6、D 7、D 8、C 十四、Asking for Permission: 1、B 2、A 3、A 6、C 7、B 十五、Advice and Suggestions: 1、D 2、A 3、C
4、B 9、C 4、A
4、B 5、D 十二、非谓语动词
知识要点： 一、非谓语动词种类及句法功能 （一）概述： 在英语中，不作句子谓语，而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词，叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有动 词不定式（the Infinitive） ；动名词（the Gerund） ；现在分词（the Present Participle） ；过去分词（the Past Participle） 。 1、非谓语动词与谓语动词的相同点有： 1）如果是及物动词都可与宾语连用，例如： They built a garden. They suggested building a garden. 2）都可以被状语修饰： The suit fits him very well. The suit used to fit him very well. 3）都有主动与被动, “体”式（一般式；进行式；完成式）的变化。例如： He was punished by his parents.（谓语动词被动语态） He avoided being punished by his parents.（动名词的被动式） We have written the composition.（谓语动词的完成时） Having written the composition, we handed it in.（现在分词的完成式） 4）都可以有逻辑主语 They started the work at once.（谓语动词的逻辑主语） The boss ordered them to start the work.（动词不定式的逻辑主语） We are League members.（谓语动词的主语） We being League member, the work was well done.（现在分词的逻辑主语） 2、非谓语动词与谓语动词的不同点有： 1）非谓语动词可以有名词作用（如动词不定式和动名词） ，在句中做主语、宾语、表语。 2）非谓语动词可以有形容词作用（如动词不定式和分词） ，在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。 3）非谓语动词可以有副词作用（如动词不定式和分词） ，在句中作状语。 （二）非谓语动词的句法功能：
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句子成分 非谓语 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词
主语 ? ?
表语 ? ? ? ?
宾语 ? ?
补语 ? （极少） ? ?
定语 ? ? ? ?
状语 ? ? ?
同位语 ? ?
二、非谓语动词用法： （一）动词不定式： （to）+do，具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1、不定式的形式： 主 一般式 进行式 完成式 动 被 / to have been written 动 to write to be writing to have written to be written
否定式：not + (to) do 1）一般式：不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后，例 如： I’m glad to meet you. He seems to know a lot. We plan to pay a visit. He wants to be an artist. The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done. 2）进行式：不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生，例如： The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. 3）完成式：不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前，例如： I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend. 2、不定式的句法功能： 1）作主语： To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时，常用形式主语 it 作形式主语，例如上面两句可用如下形式： It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 2）作表语： Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold. 3）作宾语： 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有：want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式（宾语）后面有宾语补足语，则用 it 作形式宾语，真正的宾语（不定式） 后置，放在宾语补足语后面，例如： Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语，如： I have no choice but to stay here.
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He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用，如： He gave us some advice on how to learn English. 4）作宾语补足语： 在复合宾语中，动词不定式可充当宾语补足语， 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外，介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用，如： With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的不定式连用，但改为被动语态时，不 定式要加 to, 如： I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. 5）作定语： 动词不定式作定语，放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系： A）动宾关系： I have a meeting to attend. 注意：不定式为不及物动词时，所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等，应有必要的介词，如： He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way，可以省略介词： He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者，不定式可用主动式也可用被动式： Have you got anything to sent? Have you got anything to be sent? B）说明所修饰名词的内容： We have made a plan to finish the work. C）被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语： He is the first to get here. 6）作状语： A）表目的： He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时，逻辑主语与句子主语要一致： wrong：To save money, every means has been tried. right: To save money, he has tried every means. wrong：To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right: To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. B）表结果： He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调： I visited him only to find him out. C）表原因： They were very sad to hear the news. D）表程度：
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It’s too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. 7）作独立成分： To tell you the truth, I don’t like the way he talked. 8）不定式的省略：保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to. 9）不定式的并列：第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. （二）动名词： 动名词既具有动词的一些特征，又具有名词的句法功能。 1、动名词的形式： 语 态 式 一般式 完成式 主动语态 doing having done 被动语态 being done having been done
否定式：not + 动名词 1）一般式： Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 2）被动式： He came to the party without being invited. 他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 3）完成式： We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 4）完成被动式： He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。 5）否定式：not + 动名词 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 6）复合结构：物主代词（或名词所有格）+ 动名词 He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 2、动名词的句法功能： 1）作主语： Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It’s no use quarrelling. 争吵是没用的。 2）作表语： In the ant city, the queen’s job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国，蚁后的工作是产卵。 3）作宾语： They haven’t finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。 注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语，如上面两个例句。此外，动名词作宾语时，若跟有宾语 补足语，则常用形式宾语 it，例如： We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语： enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid（避免）, excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit（承认） ，deny（否 认） mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk , （冒险） appreciate , （感激） be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t ,
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help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent?(from),keep ?from,stop?（from）,protect?from,set about, be engaged in, spend?(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like 4）作定语： He can’t walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。 Is there a swimming pool in your school. 你们学校有游泳池吗？ 5）作同位语： The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞，他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。 （三）现在分词： 现在分词既具有动词的一些特征，又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。 1、现在分词的形式： 现在 分词 一般式 完成式 及 主动语态 writing having written 物 动 词 write 被动语态 being written having been written 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone
否定式：not + 现在分词 1）现在分词的主动语态：现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，完成 式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生，常作状语。例如： They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业，他开始打兰球。 2）现在分词的被动语态：一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作，完成式表示发生在谓语动 词之前的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 被告诉了好几遍，这个淘气的孩子 又犯了同一个错误。 2、现在分词的句法功能： 1）作定语：现在分词作定语，当分词单独做定语时，放在所修饰的名词前，如果是分词短语做定语 放在名词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中，他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能，如：in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed, the man speaking 可改为 the man who is speaking. 2）现在分词作表语： The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。 be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时， 也可能是现在分词做表语， 它们的区别在于 be + doing 表示进行的 动作是进行时，而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现在分词构成系表结构。 3）作宾语补足语： 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语： see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如： Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗？ He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 4）现在分词作状语： A）作时间状语： (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时，他是一名先进工人。 B）作原因状语：
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Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员，他经常帮助他人。 C）作方式状语，表示伴随： He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里，又擦又洗。 D）作条件状语： (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩，你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 E）作结果状语： He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了，结果摔得粉碎。 F）作目的状语： He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 G）作让步状语： Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大，但不久天就晴了。 H）与逻辑主语构成独立主格： I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head. 我等汽车时，一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 所有的票已经卖光了，他们失望地离 开了。 Time permitting, we’ll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许，我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用 with (without) +名词（代词宾格）+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 H）作独立成分： Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看，他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来，女孩子更细心。 （四）过去分词： 过去分词只有一种形式：规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规 则要求，要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能： 1、过去分词作定语： Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。 注意当过去分词是单词时，一般用于名词前，如果是过去分词短语，就放在名词的后面。过去分词做 定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2、过去分词作表语： The window is broken. 窗户破了。 The were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意 be + 过去分词，如果表示状态是系表结构，如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别： The window is broken.（系表） The window was broken by the boy.（被动） 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的，不表示被动，只表示完成。如： boiled water（开水） fallen leaves（落叶） newly arrived goods（新到的货） the risen sun（升起的太阳） the changed world（变了的世界） 这类过去分词有：gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3、过去分词作宾语补足语： I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语： With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了，他们出去玩去了。 4、过去分词作状语：
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Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬， 他成为父母的骄傲。 表 （ 示原因） Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见，人们就忘不了。 （表示时间） Given more time, I’ll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间，我能做得更好。 （表示条件） Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之危险， 他仍然冒生命危险去救 那个孩子。 （表示让步） Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧，他走进山洞。 5、过去分词与逻辑主语构成独立主格： All books returned at the end of the term, the library assistant was satisfied. 所有的书期末时都还了，图书 管理员很高兴。 The field ploughed, he began to spread seed. 地耕好了，他开始撒种子。 非谓语动词用法对比 知识要点： 一、不定式与动名词做主语： 1、动名词做主语往往表示普通的、一般的行为，不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。例如： Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师讨论这个问题是有 必要的。 2、常用不定式做主语的句型有： （1）It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do （2）It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave) of sb. to do. 3、常用动名词做主语的句型有： It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing. It’s worth while doing. 二、不定式、动名词、分词做表语： 1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学目的是要训练学生 说的能力。 2、动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释，这时主语与表语位置可以互换，动名词常用于口语中。 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的（指蚁后）的专职工作是产卵。 3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征；进行时表示正在进行的动作。 The task of this class is practising the idioms. （现在分词做表语） With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. （现在进行时） 4、常用作表语的现在分词有：interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following 等。现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。 5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所承受的动 作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.（过去分词做表语） The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.（被动语态） He is well educated.（过去分词做表语） He has been educated in this college for three years.（被动语态） 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有： used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut,
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won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。 6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同： interest（使?感兴趣） ，surprise（使?吃惊） ，frighten（使?害怕） ，excite（使?兴奋） ，tire（使?疲 劳） please ， （使?满意） puzzle ， （使?迷惑不解） satisfy ， （使?满意） amuse ， （使?娱乐） disappoint 使? ， （ 失望） ，inspire（使?欢欣鼓舞） ，worry（使?忧虑） 它们的现在分词常修饰物 （有时修饰人） 表示主动， ， 过去分词常修饰人， 表示被动 （包括某人的 look、 voice 等） 。例如： Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。 They are very tired. 他们很疲劳 After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice. 三、不定式与动名词做宾语： 1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语： want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。 2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语： enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent?(from), keep?from, stop?(from), protect?from, set about, be engaged in, spend?(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on 等。 3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同，不定式表示谓语动 词之后的动作，而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前，常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 having done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.（他忘了叫我发信。 ） I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在一个普通信封上发 现了那枚珍贵的邮票。 Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里，记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加你的生日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小说，但也不能使她忘 记伤心事。 I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地帮助别人。 4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时，用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.（或用：needs to be repaired）这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。 四、不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语： 1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语： ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。 （注意 hope 后不跟不定式 做宾补。 ） 2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式，这些动词有：see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have 等。例如：
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We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。 注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲，而做“制造、有”解时，跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。 3、下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补：see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find 等。用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补，要看分词与宾语的关系。例： We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候，听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。 五、非谓语动词做定语： 1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后，表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定动作。例 如： He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。 2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别： 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途；现在分词做定语，表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖（动名词做定语，意为 a stick for walking） a sleeping car 卧铺车厢（动名词做定语，意为 a car for sleeping） the rising sun 正在升起的太阳（现在分词做定语，意为 the sun which was rising） the changing world 变化中的世界（现在分词做定语，意为 the world which is changing） 3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别：过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作，现在分词做定语表 示主动或进行的动作。如： a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息（意同 a piece of news which disappointed us） in the following years 在后来的几年中（意同 in the years that followed） a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士（意同 a woman who is dressed well） a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车（意同 a car which was parked at the gate） 六、不定式与分词做状语： 1、不定式做状语，只表示目的、结果或原因： He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中，发现钱被盗了。 （结果状语） To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚，他提高了嗓门。 （目的状语） All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步，我们都很吃惊。(原因状语) 2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式： Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看，这座城市很美。 （条件状语） Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时，他发现父亲生气了。 （时间状语） Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了，但他们继续工作。 （让步状语） Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻子，那个小男 孩哭了。 （原因状语） He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴里， 尝了尝， 笑了，看起来挺高兴。 （伴随状语） 【专项训练】 ： 1、They knew her very well. They had seen her up from childhood. A．grow B．grew C．was growing D．to grow 2、Tom kept quiet about the accident lose his job. A．so not as to B．so as not to C．so as to not D．not so as to 3、She reached the top of the hill and stopped on a big rock by the side of the path. A．to have rested B．resting
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C．to rest D．rest 4、The next morning she found the man in bed, dead. A．lying B．lie C．lay D．laying 5、Only one of these books is . A．worth to read B．worth being read C．worth of reading D．worth reading 6、The squirrel was lucky that it just missed . A．catching B．to be caught C．being caught D．to catch 7、Most of the people to the party were famous scientists. A．invited B．to invite C．being invited D．inviting 8、She didn’t remember him before. A．having met B．have met C．to meet D．to having met 9、 ——Good morning. Can I help you? ——I’d like to have this package , madam. A．be weighed B．to be weighed C．to weigh D．weighed 10、There was a terrible noise the sudden burst of light. A．followed B．following C．to be followed D．being followed 11、The murderer was brought in, with his hands behind. A．being tied B．having tied C．to be tied D．tied 12、On Saturday afternoon, Mrs. Green went to the market, some bananas and visited her cousin. A．bought B．buying C．to buy D．buy 13、The secretary worked late into the night, a long speech for the president. A．to prepare B．preparing C．prepared D．was preparing 14、I can hardly imagine Peter across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A．sail B．to sail C．sailing D．to have sailed 15、John was made the truck for a week as a punishment. A．to wash B．washing C．wash D．to be washing 16、I would appreciate back this afternoon. A．you to call B．you call C．your calling D．you’re calling 17、John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes . A．open B．to be opened C．to open D．opening 18、 a reply, he decided to write again. A．Not receiving B．Receiving not C．Not having received D．Having not received 19、Charles Babbage is generally considered the first computer. A．to have invented B．inventing C．to invent D．having invented 20、 “Can’t you read?” Mary said to the notice. A．angrily pointing B．and point angrily C．angrily pointed D．and angrily pointing 21、Rather than on a crowded bus, he always prefers a bicycle. A．ride, ride B．riding, ride C．ride, to ride D．to ride, riding 22、The missing boys were last seen near the river. A．playing B．to be playing C．play D．to play 23、The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, that he had enjoyed his stay here. A．having added B．to add C．adding D．added
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24、The first text books for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A．having written B．to be written C．being written D．written 25、We agreed here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. A．having met B．meeting C．to meet D．to have met 26、——You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ——Well, now I regret that. A．to do B．to be doing C．to have done D．having done 27、The patient was warned oily food after the operation. A．to eat not B．eating not C．not to eat D．not eating 28、 in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A．Losting B．Having lost C．Lost D．To lose 29、——Is this raincoat yours? ——No, mine there behind the door. A．is hanging B．has hung C．hangs D．hung 30、The Olympic Games, in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A．first playing B．to be first played C．first played D．to be first playing 31、We saw the bird flap its wings and away. A．fly B．flied C．flew D．flying 32、I insisted that the dictionary to be bought at once. A．refers to B．refer C．referred D．referring 33、 , ice will be changed into water. A．Heating B．Heated C．If heating D．To be heated 34、The foreigner seemed his way. A．to be losing B．to have missed C．to have lost D．missed 35、Don’t leave me alone at home. A．to stay B．stay C．staying D．stayed 36、Whatever must well. A．is to be done, be done B．are to do, do C．is to do?be done D．are to be done, do 37、The officer ordered the wounded soldier at once. A．to operate B．be operated C．was operated on D．to be operated on 38、With the walls white , the room seems larger. A．painting B．painted C．to be painted D．has been painted 39、——Can I help you? ——I’d like to have the shoes , for they are a bit smaller. A．changing B．changed C．to be changing D．be changed 40、On hearing the news, the woman stood there . A．frightened B．frightening C．to frighten D．to be frightened 41、 the train, they decided to wait for another. A．Missed B．Missing C．Having missed D．Being missed 42、There no bus, I had to walk home. A．is B．was C．were D．being
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43、At present, there is a new airport and supermarket in the south of the town. A．built B．to be built C．being built D．is being built 44、The young man told the doctor that he didn’t need his heart . A．having, checked B．to have, checked C．having, to check D．to have, to check 45、Try the back door if nobody answers the front door. A．to knock at B．knocking at C．and knock at D．and knocking at 46、We have to do something to stop wild animals . A．killing B．to be killed C．being killed D．to kill 47、 , we plan to hold a class meeting. A．Time permitting B．Time permits C．If time is permitted D．Time permitted 48、With the boy the way, the soldiers got to the position in time. A．led B．leading C．being led D．was leading 49、The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth for him without delay. A．to weave B．to be woven C．to have woven D．to be weaving 50、Look at his look. It seems as if he had met a tiger. A．frightened, frightening B．frightening, frightened C．frightened, frightened D．frightening, frightening 51、 , the players began the game. A．Having taken our seats B．Taking our seats C．After we took our seats D．Being taken the seats 52、 him before, she didn’t know he was her uncle. A．Not having seen B．Having not seen C．Not seeing D．Not being seen 53、 many times, but he made the same mistake again. A．Having been told B．Although he had been told C．He had been told D．Having told 54、The glass of water is too hot. I prefer some cold water. A．boiled B．boiling C．to boil D．having boiled 55、The little boy entered the classroom without . A．noticing B．noticed C．being noticed D．notice 56、We’re considering English in pairs after class. A．practising speaking B．practising to speak C．to practise speaking D．to practise to speak 57、 the mixture, the teacher showed it around the classroom. A．To see B．More students to see C．For more students to see D．Seen 58、I apologize for my promise. A．not to keep B．being kept C．not having kept D．having not kept 59、The book on the desk to her. A．lying, belonging B．lay, belong C．lying, belongs D．being lie, is belong 60、 , Mary had to stay at home to look after her. A．Being ill B．To be ill C．Her mother was ill D．Her mother being ill
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61、 much English troubled him a lot. A．His not knowing B．Not he knowing C．His having not known D．His not known 62、He won’t attend the meeting unless to give a speech. A．invited B．inviting C．being invited D．he will be invited 63、He got the first and won the prize as . A．expected B．expecting C．to be expected D．expect 64、He stood there with his eyes me. A．fixing B．fixing on C．fixed to D．fixed on 65、Mother warned him after drinking. A．to never drive B．never to drive C．never driving D．never drive 66、I remember something like that. A．that he say B．him to say C．his saying D．him having said 67、Did you smell something ? A．burnt B．to burn C．to be burning D．burning 68、Because of air pollution, this city is no longer . A．a good place to live in B．a good place for living in C．a good place to live D．a good place to be lived in 69、Let the day . A．to be remembered B．remembered C．be remembered D．remember 70、His parents , the orphan is now taken care of by the villagers. A．dead B．dying C．have died D．having died 71、Would you be to do me a favour? A．as good as B．so good as C．enough good D．good enough as 72、He had us all through the party. A．laughing B．to laugh C．laugh D．laughed 73、The nurse suggested the old man , for he had a long time to wait. A．to sit down B．sit down C．would sit down D．sat down 74、Those who have questions , raise your hands. A．asked B．ask C．asking D．to ask 75、This room is used food. A．to store B．storing C．to storing D．stored 76、We can’t keep our eyes to all this. A．shut B．shutting C．to shut D．shutted 77、I don’t feel like to the cinema. A．go B．going C．gone D．to go 78、 you the truth, I don’t like the design he offered. A．Tell B．Told C．Telling D．To tell 79、 at the station, they found the train . A．Arriving, going B．Arrived, go C．Arriving, gone D．Arrived, gone 80、What he said made us . A．to surprise B．surprise C．surprising D．surprised
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[答案]： 1、A 7、A 13、B 19、A 25、C 31、A 37、D 43、C 49、B 55、C 61、A 67、D 73、B 79、C
2、B 8、A 14、C 20、A 26、D 32、C 38、B 44、B 50、A 56、A 62、A 68、A 74、D 80、D
3、C 9、D 15、A 21、C 27、C 33、B 39、B 45、B 51、C 57、C 63、A 69、C 75、A
4、A 10、B 16、C 22、A 28、C 34、C 40、A 46、C 52、A 58、C 64、D 70、D 76、A
5、D 11、D 17、A 23、C 29、A 35、C 41、C 47、A 53、C 59、C 65、B 71、B 77、B
6、C 12、A 18、C 24、D 30、C 36、A 42、D 48、B 54、A 60、D 66、C 72、A 78、D
十三、The Sentences 知识要点： 句子按使用的目的可分为四类： 1、陈述句 2、疑问句 3、祈使句 4、感叹句 从结构上看句子可分为三种类型： 1、简单句 2、并列句 3、复合句 一、句子的种类（Kinds of Sentences） 1、陈述句： （1）肯定句：We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 （2）否定句：They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不上班。 说明：叙述或否定一个事实或看法。 2、疑问句： （1）一般疑问句： Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗？ Yes, I am. 是的，我是工人。 Haven’t you seen the film? No, I haven’t. 你没看过这部电影吗？没看过。 说明：以一个助动词，情态动词或动词 be 开始的问句。回答要用 yes 或 no。 （2）特殊疑问句： Who is the man? 这人是谁？ When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视？ What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什么？ 说明：以一个疑问代词或疑问副词开头的句子一般要用倒装句语序（或称为疑问词加一般疑问句） （3）选择疑问句： Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶水还是要咖啡？哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语？他学法语。 说明：提出两个或两个以上的情况，选择一个作为答案。 （4）反意疑问句： They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要去机场，是吗？ You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你没做完作业，是吗？ 说明：提出情况或看法问对方是否同意。在陈述句后附加一个简短的疑问句，即前面句子肯定，后为 否定；前面句子否定，后为肯定。
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He seldom went to bed at ten, did he? 他很少在十点钟上床睡觉？是吗？ He knows little Russian, does he? 他几乎不懂俄语，是吗？ 说明：当陈述句部分含有 never, no, hardly, seldom, little 等否定意义的副词时，附加问句用肯定形式。 （5）祈使句： a．陈述句： Be sure to get there at eight. 八点钟一定要到那儿。 b．否定句： Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心，我会帮助你的。 说明：表示命令，请求，叮嘱，号召等，谓语动词用原形。 （6）感叹句： what + n.： What great changes we have had these years! 这几年我们有了多么大的变化啊！ What a fine day it is! 多好的天呀！ how + adj.： How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀！ how + adv. ： How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀！ How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀！ How + adj. + a (an) + n. How nice a boy (he is)！=What a nice boy he is! 多么好的孩子啊！ 说明：表示说话时惊异，喜悦，气忿等情绪。what 修饰名词，how 修饰形容词、副词或句子。 二、句子的类型（Types of Sentences） 1、简单句的句子的类型： 一个主语+一个谓语，例： The girl plays the piano every day. 那女孩每天弹钢琴。 两个主语+一个谓语，例： Tom and I are good friends. 汤姆和我是好朋友。 一个主语+两个谓语，例： He opened the door and left. 他打开门出去了。 两个主语或两个谓语或更多，例： Mr and Mrs Smith went to the market, bought some fruit and visited their friends. 史密斯夫妇去市场，买了些水果，并看望了朋友。 结构特殊：只含有一个词或一个词组，例： Hello! 喂！ Help! Help! 救命啊！救命！ Many thanks. 万分感谢。 2、简单句的基本句型（The Basic Sentence Patterns） 句型结构： （1）主语+不及物动词：S + Vi.，例： Birds fly. 鸟飞 They disappeared. 他们消失了。 （2）主 + 连系动词 + 表语：S + V + P，例： She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。 （3）主 + 及物动词 + 宾语：S + Vt + O，例： He likes swimming. 他喜欢游泳。
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We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 （4）主 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语：S + Vt + O + O，例： I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 （5）主 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 补语：S + Vt + O + C，例： They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准备好。 注： = Subject 主语） S （ Vi=Intransitive Verbs （不及物动词） Vt=Transitive Verb （及物动词） P=Predicative （表语）O=Object（宾语）C=Complement 补语 重点、难点： 否定陈述句要注意下列几点： （1）否定陈述句主要是在肯定句中加 not 或 no (= not a /any) 构成的，除 not 和 no 外，用具有否定意 义的副词也可构成否定陈述句。常用的词有 hardly, seldom, never, little, scarcely, barely, rarely 等。 （2）其他成分的否定形式 有些句子的结构上属于肯定式，但含有否定意义的词，可分以下几种。 否定的主语： Nobody will agree with you. 没人同意你的意见。 None of the students like the novel. 没有学生喜欢这本小说。 No student here studies Russian. 这里没有一个学生学俄语。 否定的宾语： We saw nothing in the darkness. 在黑暗中我们什么都看不见。 He will borrow the book from nobody. 他从谁那都借不来这本书。 You must remember not to be late for class. 你必须记住上课不准迟到。 否定的状语： They came here not by bike but on foot. 他不是骑车来的而是走着来的。 We could find him nowhere. 我们什么地方也找不到他。 （3）不定代词 all, both, everyone 或 everybody 用于否定句时，表示部分否定。 All the trees here are not apple trees. ( = Not all the trees here are apple trees. ) 这里的树并非都是苹果树。 （有的是苹果树，有的不是。 ） Both of the sisters are not nurses. ( = Not both of the sisters are nurses.) 这姐儿俩并不都是护士。 Everybody can’t do it. (= Not everybody can do it. ) 并不是人人都能做这件事。 【专项训练】 ： 一、陈述句和疑问句： 1、They happy when they hear the news. A．will B．will be C．were D．don’t 2、—— “ Is your uncle a driver?” —— “ .” A．No, but my aunt is B．Yes, but my anut is C．No, he doesn’t D．Yes, he does 3、We satisfied with their work. A．don’t B．are not C．won’t D．weren’t being 4、He coffee at all. He tea. A．doesn’t like, prefers B．likes, doesn’t prefer C．would like, not prefers D．prefers, is not fond of
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5、She me only twice since last year. A．sees B．was seeing C．has seen D．have seen 6、My grandma in the country. Now she in the city. A．used to live, lives B．used to living, lived C．uses to live, is living D．was used to live, lives 7、You make such mistakes again. A．should never B．should not always C．would always not D．would not forever 8、 “Can you drive a car?” “ .” A．Yes, and Jim can’t too B．Yes, but Jim can’t C．No, but Jim can, too D．No, but Jim can’t 9、 “Are you going to the super market?” “ No, .” A．I cycle there B．I walk there C．to the work D．I’ve already been there 10、In England tea with milk or sugar in it. A．usually drinks B．is usually drunk C．usually is drunk D．drank usually 11、 “Is she going to the post office?” “No, .” A．she doesn’t B．she goes by bike C．to the shops D．she’s on the bike 12、Tom like reading at all. He interested in playing basketball. A．doesn’t, is B．doesn’t, were C．is, does D．was, is 13、When home from work? A．do your parents come B．does your parents come C．have your parents D．our parents come 14、Which of the students the examination? A．not pass B．didn’t pass C．pass D．didn’t passed 15、They trouble lifting the heavy box. A．didn’t have many B．hadn’t a lot of C．didn’t have much D．haven’t a great deal of 16、—— “Did you have breakfast this morning? —— “ .” A．Yes, I had B．Yes, I did C．No, I hadn’t D．No, I didn’t have. 17、 colour is the cover of the dictionary? A．What B．Which C．How D．Whose 18、 “ does he brush his teeth a day?” “Twice.” A．What time B．How long C．When D．How many times 19、There are many pictures on the wall. do you like best? A．What B．Which one C．Which of the picture D．Which one picture 20、Since when her? A．did you know B．have you known C．do you know D．you know 21、 “That ten pound note belongs to me.” “ .” A．Yes, it is B．Yes, it belongs C．No it doesn’t D．No, it isn’t
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22、 “Would you rather wait or come back later?” “ .” A．I’d rather come back B．Yes, I’d rather not wait C．No, I’d rather wait D．to come back 23、 “ shoes do you take?” “Size 42.” A．Which number B．What number C．What size D．What 24、 “ is the weather like today?” “ It’s windy.” A．What B．How C．What kind D．Which 25、Would you read my composition and correct the mistakes, ? A．if have B．if any C．if ever D．if not 26、 is the distance between these two villages? A．How far B．What C．How long D．How much 27、 do you go to the cinema? Twice a month. A．How many time B．How much C．How long D．How often 28、How it in English? A．you say B．do you speak C．do you say D．to speak 29、 is the population of the city? A．How much B．How many C．How D．What 30、 did she get this information? A．Whom B．Who C．Where D．What 31、 does your watch cost? Two hundred yuan. A．How many B．What price C．What D．How expensive 32、About do you want to know more? A．Whom B．who C．which D．what 33、——We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. ——What do you suppose to her. A．was happening B．to happen C．has happened D．having happened 34、——Have you heard the news about Jim? ——No. What ? A．is it B．it is C．are they D．they are 35、——Would you rather go there by train or by air? —— . A．Yes, I would B．No, I wouldn’t C．Yes, by air D．By air 36、 I go or you go yourself? A．Will?will B．Shall?shall C．Shall?will D．Will?shall 37、——Do you think the question easy or not? —— . A．Yes, I do B．No, I don’t C．It is easy D．Yes, it’s easy 38、Shall we stay at home or to the park? A．to go B．going C．go D．will go 39、 writer is better known in China, Charles Dickens or Mark Twain? A．Whichever B．Whether C．What D．Which 40、—— was the Nanjing-Changjiang Bridge open to traffic?
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——It was open to traffic in 1968. A．What B．What time C．How long D．When 二、感叹句、祈使句 41、 from Beijing to London! A．How long way it is B．What a long way it is C．What a long way is it D．How long a way is it 42、Oh, John, you gave us! A．How a pleasant surprise B．How pleasant surprise C．What a pleasant surprise D．What pleasant surprise 43、 terrible weather we’ve been having these days! A．How a B．What a C．How D．What 44、 girl she is! A．What bright a B．How a bright C．How bright a D．What a bright 45、 we have today? A．How fine day B．What fine day C．How a fine day D．What a fine day 46、How flowers are! A．beautiful B．beautifullyC．beautiful the D．beautiful that 47、How ! A．does time fly B．times fly C．time flies D．flies time 48、What work he does! A．harder B．hard C．hardly D．hardest 49、 careful our monitor is! A．How a B．How C．What a D．What 50、 advice he gave us! A．What a B．How good C．What good D．How 51、 picture it is! A．What wonderful B．How a wonderful C．What wonderful a D．How wonderful a 52、 I wish to pay a visit to Hongkong! A．How do B．What do C．What D．How 53、 hardworking students they are! A．What B．What a C．What an D．How 54、 long time it lasted! A．What B．What a C．How D．How a 55、 down the radio. The baby’s sleeping in the next room. A．Turning B．To turn C．Turn D．Turned 56、Let’s football in the street. A．not to playB．not play C．don’t play D．not playing 57、 careful when you cross the street. A．Don’t be B．Do be C．Being D．Do 58、 the child all day long! A．Let, not to cry B．Not let, cry C．Don’t let, to cry D．Don’t let, cry 59、 afraid of make mistakes!
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A．Don’t be B．Not to be C．Not being D．Be not 60、 me again before coming. A．Calling B．To call C．Do calling D．Call 三、反意疑问句 61、You’d like some coffee, ? A．weren’t you B．wouldn’t you C．hadn’t you D．shouldn’t you 62、I don’t think he will come to the meeting, ? A．will he B．won’t he C．do I D．am I 63、Harry and his brother promised to work harder, . A．do they B．don’t they C．did they D．didn’t they 64、His father knows little about it, he? A．does B．doesn’t C．is he D．isn’t 65、We all like reading story books, ? A．do we B．do you C．don’t we D．don’t you 66、My sister seldom goes to the theatre she? A．doesn’t B．does C．is D．isn’t 67、Your father promised to buy a computer for you, he? A．often, did B．never, didn’t C．already, did D．never, did 68、Be sure to write to us, ? A．will you B．aren’t you C．would you D．can you 69、Don’t smoke in the meeting room, you? A．do you B．will you C．would D．can 70、It’s fine today. Let’s go fishing, ? A．will we B．shall we C．do we D．don’t we 71、Mary has few friend in Japan, she? A．has B．don’t C．doesn’t D．hasn’t 72、There is a beautiful lake in this city, ? A．isn’t it B．isn’t there C．is it D．hasn’t it 73、There is nothing wrong with my bike, ? A．is it B．isn’t there C．isn’t it D．is there 74、He comes late sometimes, ? A．isn’t he B．comes he C．doesn’t he D．is he 75、——You are not a new comer, are you? —— . I came here only yesterday. A．No, I am B．Yes, I am C．No, I’m not D．Yes, I’m not. 76、She could hardly believe it, ? A．couldn’t she B．could she C．didn’t she D．did she 77、You needn’t go, ? A．can you B．must you C．need you D．may you 78、You must work hard from now on, ? A．can you B．